Laser PhysicsISBN: 9780470387719
844 pages
March 2010

1 Introduction to Laser Operation.
1.1 Introduction.
1.2 Lasers and Laser Light.
1.3 Light in Cavities.
1.4 Light Emission and Absorption in Quantum Theory.
1.5 Einstein Theory of Light–Matter Interactions.
1.6 Summary.
2 Atoms, Molecules, and Solids.
2.1 Introduction.
2.2 Electron Energy Levels in Atoms.
2.3 Molecular Vibrations.
2.4 Molecular Rotations.
2.5 Example: Carbon Dioxide.
2.6 Conductors and Insulators.
2.7 Semiconductors.
2.8 Semiconductor Junctions.
2.9 LightEmitting Diodes.
2.10 Summary.
Appendix: Energy Bands in Solids.
Problems.
3 Absorption, Emission, and Dispersion of Light.
3.1 Introduction.
3.2 Electron Oscillator Model.
3.3 Spontaneous Emission.
3.4 Absorption.
3.5 Absorption of Broadband Light.
3.6 Thermal Radiation.
3.7 Emission and Absorption of Narrowband Light.
3.8 Collision Broadening.
3.9 Doppler Broadening.
3.10 The Voigt Profile.
3.11 Radiative Broadening.
3.12 Absorption and Gain Coefficients.
3.13 Example: Sodium Vapor.
3.14 Refractive Index.
3.15 Anomalous Dispersion.
3.16 Summary.
Appendix: The Oscillator Model and Quantum Theory.
Problems.
4 Laser Oscillation: Gain and Threshold.
4.1 Introduction.
4.2 Gain and Feedback.
4.3 Threshold.
4.4 Photon Rate Equations.
4.5 Population Rate Equations.
4.6 Comparison with Chapter 1.
4.7 ThreeLevel Laser Scheme.
4.8 FourLevel Laser Scheme.
4.9 Pumping Three and FourLevel Lasers.
4.10 Examples of Three and FourLevel Lasers.
4.11 Saturation.
4.12 SmallSignal Gain and Saturation.
4.13 Spatial Hole Burning.
4.14 Spectral Hole Burning.
4.15 Summary.
Problems.
5 Laser Oscillation: Power and Frequency.
5.1 Introduction.
5.2 UniformField Approximation.
5.3 Optimal Output Coupling.
5.4 Effect of Spatial Hole Burning.
5.5 Large Output Coupling.
5.6 Measuring Gain and Optimal Output Coupling.
5.7 Inhomogeneously Broadened Media.
5.8 Spectral Hole Burning and the Lamb Dip.
5.9 Frequency Pulling.
5.10 Obtaining SingleMode Oscillation.
5.11 The Laser Linewidth.
5.12 Polarization and Modulation.
5.13 Frequency Stabilization.
5.14 Laser at Threshold.
Appendix: The FabryPérot Etalon.
Problems.
6 Multimode and Pulsed Lasing.
6.1 Introduction.
6.2 Rate Equations for Intensities and Populations.
6.3 Relaxation Oscillations.
6.4 Q Switching.
6.5 Methods of Q Switching.
6.6 Multimode Laser Oscillation.
6.7 PhaseLocked Oscillators.
6.8 Mode Locking.
6.9 AmplitudeModulated Mode Locking.
6.10 FrequencyModulated Mode Locking.
6.11 Methods of Mode Locking.
6.12 Amplification of Short Pulses.
6.13 Amplified Spontaneous Emission.
6.14 Ultrashort Lights Pulses.
Appendix: Diffraction of Light by Sound.
Problems.
7 Laser Resonators and Gaussian Beams.
7.1 Introduction.
7.2 The Ray Matrix.
7.3 Resonator Stability.
7.4 The Paraxial Wave Equation.
7.5 Gaussian Beams.
7.6 The ABCD Law for Gaussian Beams.
7.7 Gaussian Bema Modes.
7.8 Hermit–Gaussian and Laguerre–Gaussian Beams.
7.9 Resonators for He–Ne Lasers.
7.10 Diffraction.
7.11 Diffraction by an Aperture.
7.12 Diffraction Theory of Resonators.
7.13 Beam Quality.
7.14 Unstable Resonators for HighPower Lasers.
7.15 Bessel Beams.
Problems.
8 Propagation of Laser Radiation.
8.1 Introduction.
8.2 The Wave Equation for the Electric Field.
8.3 Group Velocity.
8.4 Group Velocity Dispersion.
8.5 Chirping.
8.6 Propagation Modes in Fibers.
8.7 SingleMode Fibers.
8.8 Birefringence.
8.9 Rayleigh Scattering.
8.10 Atmospheric Turbulence.
8.11 The Coherence Diameter.
8.12 Beam Wander and Spread.
8.13 Intensity Scintillations.
8.14 Remarks.
Problems.
9 Coherence in AtomField Interactions.
9.1 Introduction.
9.2 TimeDependent Schrödinger Equation.
9.3 TwoState Atoms in Sinusoidal Fields.
9.4 Density Matrix and Collisional Relaxation.
9.5 Optical Bloch Equations.
9.6 Maxwell–Bloch Equations.
9.7 Semiclassical Laser Theory.
9.8 Resonant Pulse Propagation.
9.9 SelfInduced Transparency.
9.10 Electromagnetically Induced Transparency.
9.11 TransitTime Broadening and the Ramsey Effect.
9.12 Summary.
Problems.
10 Introduction to Nonlinear Optics.
10.1 Model for Nonlinear Polarization.
10.2 Nonlinear Susceptibilities.
10.3 SelfFocusing.
10.4 SelfPhase Modulation.
10.5 SecondHarmonic Generation.
10.6 Phase Matching.
10.7 ThreeWave Mixing.
10.8 Parametric Amplification and Oscillation.
10.9 TwoPhoton Downconversion.
10.10 Discussion.
Problems.
11 Some Specific Lasers and Amplifiers.
11.1 Introduction.
11.2 ElectronImpact Excitation.
11.3 Excitation Transfer.
11.4 He–Ne Lasers.
11.5 Rate Equation Model of Population Inversion in He–Ne Lasers.
11.6 Radial Gain Variation in He–Ne Laser Tubes.
11.7 CO_{2} ElectricDischarge Lasers.
11.8 GasDynamic Lasers.
11.9 Chemical Lasers.
11.10 Excimer Lasers.
11.11 Dye Lasers.
11.12 Optically Pumped SolidState Lasers.
11.13 Ultrashort, Superintense Pulses.
11.14 Fiber Amplifiers and Lasers.
11.15 Remarks.
Appendix: Gain or Absorption Coefficient for VibrationalRotational Transitions.
Problems.
12 Photons.
12.1 What is a Photon.
12.2 Photon Polarization: All or Nothing.
12.3 Failures of Classical Theory.
12.4 Wave Interference and Photons.
12.5 Photon Counting.
12.6 The Poisson Distribution.
12.7 Photon Detectors.
12.8 Remarks.
Problems.
13 Coherence.
13.1 Introduction.
13.2 Brightness.
13.3 The Coherence of Light.
13.4 The Mutual Coherence Function.
13.5 Complex Degree of Coherence.
13.6 QuasiMonochromatic Fields and Visibility.
13.7 Spatial Coherence of Light from Ordinary Sources.
13.8 Spatial Coherence of Laser Radiation.
13.9 Diffraction of Laser Radiation.
13.10 Coherence and the Michelson Interferometer.
13.11 Temporal Coherence.
13.12 The Photon Degeneracy Factor.
13.13 Orders of Coherence.
13.14 Photon Statistics of Lasers and Thermal Sources.
13.15 Brown–Twiss Correlations.
Problems.
14 Some Applications of Lasers.
14.1 Lidar.
14.2 Adaptive Optics for Astronomy.
14.3 Optical Pumping and SpinPolarized Atoms.
14.4 Laser Cooling.
14.5 Trapping Atoms with Lasers and Magnetic Fields.
14.6 Bose–Einstein Condensation.
14.7 Applications of Ultrashort Pulses.
14.8 Lasers in Medicine.
14.9 Remarks.
Problems.
15 Diode Lasers and Optical Communications.
15.1 Introduction.
15.2 Diode Lasers.
15.3 Modulation of Diode Lasers.
15.4 Noise Characteristics of Diode Lasers.
15.5 Information and Noise.
15.6 Optical Communications.
Problems.
16 Numerical Methods for Differential Equations.
16.A Fortran Program For Differential Equations.
16.B Fortran Program For PlaneWave Propagation.
16.C Fortran Program For Paraxial Propagation.
Index.
JOSEPH H. EBERLY is currently Andrew Carnegie Professor Physics and Professor of Optics at the University of Rochester. A past president of the Optical Society of America, he has contributed to the research literature on theoretical quantum optics and laser physics, with interests in multipulse propogation, highfield atomic physics, quantum entanglement, cavity QED, and relaxation dynamics. Dr. Eberly received the Smoluchowski Medal of the Physical Society of Poland in 1987 and the Charles Hard Townes Award of the Optical Society of America in 1994. He is the coauthor of two books and coeditor of several conference proceedings. He is the founding editor of Optics Express and has served on a number of editorial and advisory boards.
 Emphasis on applications of lasers and on optical physics rather than lasers
 Discussions have been focusing on the basic physics of the interaction of light with matter and the basic operating principles of lasers
 Significant additions including sections on Polarization and Modulation, Frequency Stabilization, and an expanded section on Amplified Spontaneous Emission
 New chapter on Introduction to Nonlinear Optics
 New sections on chirpedpulse amplification and fiber amplifiers
 A section on Adaptive Optics for Astronomy, a topic of growing interest for correcting the effects of atmospheric turbulence on large groundbased telescopes, has been included
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