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Networks and Services: Carrier Ethernet, PBT, MPLS-TP, and VPLS

ISBN: 978-0-470-39119-8
432 pages
October 2012
Networks and Services: Carrier Ethernet, PBT, MPLS-TP, and VPLS (0470391197) cover image

This book provides a comprehensive understanding of current and debated future networking technologies. It gives insight into building end-to-end networks and services with Carrier Ethernet, PBT, MPLS-TP, and VPLS while also shedding light on the pros and cons of these technologies for service providers and enterprise network owners.

Focusing on layer-2 networking and services, Networks and Services covers:

  • The basics of Ethernet such as protocol stack, bridges, switches, and hubs
  • Key techniques that are being used in building carrier-class Carrier Ethernet networks and services like synchronization, pseudowires, and protection
  • Carrier Ethernet network architectures and services that are currently deployed in the industry
  • Traffic management and OAM capabilities of Carrier Ethernet
  • Circuit Emulation Services
  • PBB and PBT to resolve possible scalability issues of Carrier Ethernet
  • Technologies that are competing or working with Carrier Ethernet in forming data networks and services, Transport MPLS, MPLS Transport Profile, and VPLS

Networks and Services: Carrier Ethernet, PBT, MPLS-TP, and VPLS is ideal for network architects, engineers, and planning professionals in telecommunications, as well as students and researchers in related disciplines.

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Foreword xiii

Preface xv

1 Introduction and Overview 1

1.1 Introduction 1

1.2 Basic Ethernet 2

1.3 Synchronization 2

1.4 Pseudowires 2

1.5 Protection 2

1.6 Carrier Ethernet Architecture and Services 3

1.7 Carrier Ethernet Traffic Management 4

1.8 Ethernet Operations, Administrations, and Maintenance (OAM) 5

1.9 Circuit Emulation 6

1.10 Ethernet Local Management Interface (ELMI) 7

1.11 PBT 8

1.12 T-MPLS and MPLS-TP 9

1.13 Virtual Private LAN Services (VPLS) 11

2 Basic Ethernet 14

2.1 Introduction 14

2.2 CSMA/CD 15

2.3 Full Duplex, Pause, Autonegotiation 16

2.4 Repeaters and Hubs 16

2.5 Bridges 17

2.6 Switches 18

2.7 Physical Layer 19

2.8 Temperature Hardening 26

2.9 Standards 27

2.10 Ethernet Frame Types and the Ethertype Field 27

2.11 Conclusion 32

References 32

3 Synchronization 33

3.1 Introduction 33

3.2 Application Requirements 35

3.3 Synchronization Standards 39

3.4 NTP/SNTP 40

3.5 Precision Time Protocol (IEEE 1588) 44

3.6 Synchronous-Ethernet Networks (SyncE) 51

3.7 Conclusion 61

References 61

4 Pseudowires 63

4.1 Introduction 63

4.2 Protocol Layers 63

4.3 Payload Types 64

4.4 Pseudowire Architecture 65

4.5 Control Plane 72

4.6 Multisegment Architecture 74

4.7 Multisegment Pseudowire Setup Mechanisms 77

4.8 Resiliency 80

4.9 Quality of Service and Congestion Control 80

4.10 Operations and Maintenance (OAM) 81

4.11 Security 83

4.12 Conclusion 84

References 85

5 Ethernet Protection 86

5.1 Introduction 86

5.2 Automatic Protection Switching (APS) Entities 87

5.3 Linear Protection 89

5.4 Ring Protection 97

5.5 Link Aggregation 102

5.6 Conclusion 108

References 108

6 Carrier Ethernet Architectures and Services 109

6.1 Introduction 109

6.2 Standards 111

6.3 Architecture 111

6.4 Interfaces 125

6.5 Services 138

6.6 Conclusion 156

References 156

7 Carrier Ethernet Traffic Management 158

7.1 Introduction 158

7.2 Policing 160

7.3 Queuing, Scheduling, and Flow Control 161

7.4 Three CoS Model 161

7.5 SLAs (Service-Level Agreements) 164

7.6 SLAs 168

7.7 Application-CoS-Priority Mapping 168

7.8 Bandwidth Profile 177

7.9 Conclusion 180

References 180

8 Carrier Ethernet OAM&P (Operations, Administration, Management, and Performance) 181

8.1 Introduction 181

8.2 Link OAM 183

8.3 Service OAM 186

8.4 Maintenance Entities 188

8.5 Maintenance Points 190

8.6 OAM Addressing and Frame Format 193

8.7 Continuity Check Message (CCM) 198

8.8 Loopback and Reply Messages (LBM and LBR) 202

8.9 Link Trace and Reply Messages (LTM and LTR) 206

8.10 Ethernet Alarm Indication Signal (ETH-AIS) 210

8.11 Ethernet Remote Defective Indication (ETH-RDI) 213

8.12 Ethernet Locked Signal (ETH-LCK) 214

8.13 Performance Measurements 215

8.14 Performance Monitoring 217

8.15 Loss Measurements 218

8.16 Availability 221

8.17 Frame Delay Measurements 224

8.18 Interframe Delay Variation (IFDV) Measurements 225

8.19 Testing 225

8.20 Security 232

8.21 OAM Bandwidth 232

8.22 Conclusion 233

References 233

9 Circuit Emulation Services (CES) 234

9.1 Introduction 234

9.2 Circuit Emulation Functions 237

9.3 Adaptation Function Headers 238

9.4 Synchronization 241

9.5 TDM Application Signaling 242

9.6 CESoETH Defects and Alarms 244

9.7 Performance Monitoring of CESoETH 245

9.8 CESoETH Service Configuration 245

9.9 Conclusion 246

References 246

10 Carrier Ethernet Local Management Interface 247

10.1 Introduction 247

10.2 ELMI Messages 250

10.3 ELMI Message Elements 252

10.4 ELMI System Parameters and Procedures 257

10.5 UNI-C AND N Procedures 260

10.6 Conclusion 261

References 261

11 PB (Provider Bridges), PBB (Provider Backbone Bridges), and PBT (Provider Backbone Transport) 262

11.1 Introduction 262

11.2 IEEE 802.1AB 264

11.3 Provider Backbone Bridges (PBB) 270

11.4 PBT (Provider Backbone Transport) 278

11.5 Conclusion 287

References 287

12 T-MPLS (Transport MPLS) 288

12.1 Introduction 288

12.2 Differences from MPLS 290

12.3 Architecture 291

12.4 T-MPLS Frame Structure 294

12.5 T-MPLS Networks 296

12.6 Conclusion 301

References 302

13 MPLS-TP(MPLS-Transport Profile) 303

13.1 Introduction 303

13.2 Frame Format 306

13.3 Architecture 307

13.4 OAM (Operations, Administration, and Maintenance) 320

13.5 Protection Switching 330

13.6 Security Considerations 331

13.7 Conclusion 331

References 331

14 Virtual Private LAN Services (VPLS) 333

14.1 Introduction 333

14.2 Data Plane 338

14.3 LDP-Based VPLS 340

14.4 BGP Approach 353

14.5 Security 360

14.6 External Network–Network Interface 360

14.7 Conclusion 360

References 361

Index 363

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MEHMET TOY, PhD, is a Distinguished Engineer at Comcast and represents the company in the Metro Ethernet Forum (MEF) and IEEE standards. Previously, he held management and technical positions at ADVA Optical Networking, Intel Corporation, Verizon Wireless, Axiowave Networks, Fujitsu Network Communications, AT&T Bell Labs, and Lucent Technologies. Dr. Toy contributed to the research, development and standardization of various telecommunication technologies including IP Multimedia System (IMS), Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM), optical, IP/MPLS, and wireless. He has authored multiple books in these areas and various articles in data networking and signal processing, and has taught at universities as a tenure-track and adjunct faculty member.

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