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How Baking Works: Exploring the Fundamentals of Baking Science, 3rd Edition

ISBN: 978-0-470-39813-5
528 pages
October 2010, ©2011
How Baking Works: Exploring the Fundamentals of Baking Science, 3rd Edition (0470398132) cover image


The guide to understanding and applying food science in the bakeshop-now in a revised and updated 3rd Edition

How Baking Works, 3rd Edition thoroughly covers the entire baking process, emphasizing the "whys" at work behind basic techniques. The book takes the user through the major ingredient groups, explaining how sweeteners, fats, milk, leavening agents, and other ingredients affect the appearance, flavor, and texture of the end product. The coverage also includes scaling and measurements, heat transfer, and sensory properties in baking.

  • Includes hands-on exercises and experiments at the end of each chapter to illustrate the sensory properties of ingredients and their impact on baked goods
  • Covers variety grains, enzymes, starch structure and gelatinization, and gluten structure, and includes an all-new chapter on baking for health and wellness
  • Features end-of-chapter questions that review content and require readers to apply and synthesize what they've learned
  • With explanatory photographs to illustrate the science of baking, How Baking Works, 3rd Edition offers a dynamic, hands-on learning experience for both practicing and future bakers and pastry chefs.
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Table of Contents



1 Introduction to Baking 1

Introduction 2

The Importance of Accuracy in the Bakeshop 2

Balances and Scales 3

Units of Measure 5

Weight and Volume Measurements 5

The Difference Between Weight Ounces and Fluid Ounces 7

The Difference Between Density and Thickness 8

Baker's Percentages 9

The Importance of Controlling Ingredient Temperatures 11

The Importance of Controlling Oven Temperatures 12

2 Heat Transfer 19

Introduction 20

Methods of Heat Transfer 20

3 Overview of the Baking Process 33

Introduction 34

Setting the Stage for Success 34

Stage I: Mixing 36

Stage II: Baking 38

Stage III: Cooling 44

4 Sensory Properties of Food 57

Introduction 58

Appearance 58

Flavor 61

Texture 68

5 Wheat Flour 79

Introduction 80

The Wheat Kernel 80

Makeup of Flour 82

Classifying Wheat 83

Particle Size 84

Flour and Dough Additives and Treatments 85

Commercial Grades of White Flours 89

Types of Patent Wheat Flours 91

Other Wheat Flours 94

Functions of Flour 96

Storage of Flours 98

6 Variety Grains and Flours 117

Introduction 118

Cereal Grains 118

Alternative Wheat Grains 122

Cereal-Free Grains and Flours 123

7 Gluten 135

Introduction 136

The Formation and Development of Gluten 136

Determining Gluten Requirements 138

Controlling Gluten Development 140

Dough Relaxation 150

8 Sugar and Other Sweeteners 163

Introduction 164

Sweeteners 164

Dry Crystalline Sugars 167

Syrups 173

Specialty Sweeteners 183

Functions of Sweeteners 186

Storage and Handling 191

9 Fats, Oils, and Emulsifiers 213

Introduction 214

Chemistry of Fats, Oils, and Emulsifi ers 214

Processing of Fats and Oils 217

Fats and Oils 221

Functions of Fats, Oils, and Emulsifi ers 233

Storage and Handling 238

10 Eggs and Egg Products 257

Introduction 258

The Makeup of an Egg 258

Commercial Classifi cation of Shell Eggs 261

Egg Products 263

Functions of Eggs 265

More on Coagulation: Basic Egg Custard 269

More on Aeration: Meringue 272

Storage and Handling 275

11 Leavening Agents 299

Introduction 300

The Process of Leavening 300

Leavening Gases 301

Yeast Fermentation 304

Chemical Leaveners 308

Storage and Handling 313

12 Thickening and Gelling Agents 323

Introduction 324

The Process of Thickening and Gelling 324

Gelatin 325

Vegetable Gums 328

Starches 330

Functions of Thickening and Gelling Agents 336

Storage and Handling 338

13 Milk and Milk Products 355

Introduction 356

Common Commercial Processes to Milk and Milk Products 356

Makeup of Milk 358

Milk Products 359

Functions of Milk and Milk Products 365

Storage and Handling 366

14 Nuts and Seeds 377

Introduction 378

Composition of Nuts, Kernels, and Seeds 378

Cost 379

Common Nuts, Kernels, and Seeds 380

Toasting Nuts 383

Storage and Handling 384

15 Cocoa and Chocolate Products 395

Introduction 396

Cocoa Beans 396

Common Cocoa and Chocolate Products 399

Handling Chocolate Products 412

Functions of Cocoa and Chocolate Products 414

Storage 417

16 Fruit and Fruit Products 427

Introduction 428

How Fruit is Purchased 428

Common Fruits 434

Fruit Ripening 437

Storage and Handling 439

17 Natural and Artificial Flavorings 453

Introduction 454

A Brief Review of Flavor 454

Flavor Profi les 454

Types of Flavorings 455

Evaluating New Flavorings 462

Storage and Handling 463

18 Baking for Health and Wellness 471

Introduction 472

Healthful Baking with the Customer in Mind 472

Guidelines for a Healthful Diet 473

Strategies for Healthful Baking 475

Food Allergies 481

Questions for Review 487

Exercises and Experiments 487





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Author Information

Paula Figoni is a food scientist and associate professor at the International Baking and Pastry Institute in the College of Culinary Arts at Johnson & Wales University in Providence, Rhode Island. She has more than ten years of experience in product development and food science at The Pillsbury Company and Ocean Spray Cranberries, Inc.

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The Wiley Advantage

    • Provides in-depth coverage of the "whys" of baking, taking students beyond the basic techniques.

    • Ingredient-oriented approach includes chapters on grains, sweeteners, fats, leavening agents, milk products, natural and artificial flavorings, and much more. Each chapter explains the sensory properties and functions of each ingredient, and applies that knowledge to the baking process.

    • Completely revised and updated third edition includes an all-new chapter on Baking for Health and Wellness, with detailed information on using whole grains, allergy-free baking, and reducing salt, sugar, and fat in popular baked goods. 

    • Strong pedagogy includes chapter objectives, end-of-chapter review questions, and exercises that reinforce key concepts, along with lab experiments that bring baking science to life in the kitchen and vividly illustrate the functions of each major ingredient.

    • Accompanied by a full instructor ancillary package, including PowerPoint slides, a Respondus test bank, and an Instructor's Manual with additional experiments and classroom projects.  

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