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Airport Engineering: Planning, Design and Development of 21st Century Airports, 4th Edition

ISBN: 978-0-470-39855-5
768 pages
April 2011
Airport Engineering: Planning, Design and Development of 21st Century Airports, 4th Edition (0470398558) cover image


First published in 1979, Airport Engineering by Ashford and Wright, has become a classic textbook in the education of airport engineers and transportation planners. Over the past twenty years, construction of new airports in the US has waned as construction abroad boomed. This new edition of Airport Engineering will respond to this shift in the growth of airports globally, with a focus on the role of the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO), while still providing the best practices and tested fundamentals that have made the book successful for over 30 years.
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Table of Contents


1 The Structure and Organization of Air Transport.

1.1 The Need for National and International Organizations.

1.2 The International Civil Aviation Organization.

1.3 Nongovernmental Organizations.

1.4 U.S. Governmental Organizations.

1.5 Aviation Planning and Regulation at State Level.

1.6 Patterns of Airport Ownership.

1.7 Revenues and Expenditures at U.S. Airports.

1.8 Sources of Capital Financing for U.S. Airports.

1.9 Federal Financing.

1.10 The U.S. National Plan of Integrated Airport Systems: A Classification of Airports.

2 Forecasting Air Transport Demand.

2.1 Introduction.

2.2 Components of Air Transport Demand.

2.3 Conventional Airport Forecast Methods.

2.4 Integrated Demand Forecast Framework.

2.5 Multiairport Region Forecast Framework.

2.6 Air Trip Distribution Models.

2.7 Modal Choice Models.

2.8 Generation–Distribution Models.

2.9 Air Freight Demand Forecasts.

2.10 General Aviation Forecasts.

2.11 Route Choice Models.

3 Characteristics of Aircraft As They Affect Airports.

3.1 Relationships between Aircraft and Airports.

3.2 The Influence of Aircraft Design on Runway Length.

3.3 Other Airport Layout Factors.

3.4 Factors Affecting Airport Capacity.

3.5 Noise.

3.6 Future Trends in Aircraft Design.

4 Airport System Planning.

4.1 Aviation System Planning.

4.2 Levels of Planning.

4.3 Planning Airport Systems under Different States of Industry.

4.4 Effect of Airline Hubs and Deregulation on U.S. Airport System.

4.5 Air Transport Planning in the United States.

4.6 Airport System Planning in Europe.

4.7 Airport System Plan Analysis.

4.8 Data Structure for Airport System Planning.

5 Airport Master Planning.

5.1 Airport Master Plan: Definition and Objectives.

5.2 Hierarchy of Planning.

5.3 Elements of Airport Master Plan: FAA.

5.4 ICAO Guidelines for Structure of Master Plan.

5.5 Airport Layout Design.

5.6 Data Requirements for Master Planning.

5.7 Structure of Master Plan Report.

5.8 Airport Site Selection.


6.1 Evolution of the System.

6.2 U.S. National Airspace System (NAS).

6.3 CNS/ATM of the NAS.

6.4 Next-Generation Systems.

7 Airport Capacity.

7.1 Introduction.

7.2 Capacity, Level of Service, and Demand Peaking.

7.3 Airside Capacity.

7.4 Factors Affecting Airside Capacity and Delay.

7.5 Determination of Runway Capacity and Delay.

7.6 Annual Service Volume.

7.7 Preliminary Capacity Analyses.

7.8 Calculating Aircraft Delay.

7.9 Taxiway Capacity.

7.10 Gate Capacity.

7.11 Assessing System Capacity–Delay for Airport Development.

7.12 Airport Landside Capacity.

8 Airside Configuration and Geometric Design of the Airside.

8.1 Introduction.

8.2 Principles of Airport Layout.

8.3 Airfield Configuration.

8.4 Runway Orientation.

8.5 Obstructions to Airspace: FAA and ICAO Standards.

8.6 Runway Length.

8.7 Clearways and Stopways.

8.8 ICAO Reference Code.

8.9 FAA Airport Reference Code.

8.10 Separation of Parallel Runways.

8.11 Runway and Taxiway Cross Section.

8.12 Object-Clearing Criteria.

8.13 Longitudinal-Grade Design for Runways and Stopways.

8.14 Longitudinal-Grade Design for Taxiways.

8.15 Taxiway Design.

8.16 Holding Aprons.

8.17 Terminal Aprons.

8.18 Summary.

9 Safeguarding the Airport.

9.1 Airport Safety.

9.2 Airport Security.

9.3 Airport Emergency Planning.

9.4 Planning of Airport Security.

9.5 Safeguarding the Airspace.

10 Passenger Terminal.

10.1 Function of Airport Passenger Terminal.

10.2 Terminal User.

10.3 Facilities Required at Passenger Terminal.

10.4 Passenger and Baggage Flow.

10.5 Security Considerations in Passenger Terminal Design and Layout.

10.6 Terminal Design Concepts.

10.7 Vertical Distribution of Activities.

10.8 Passenger Behavior in Terminal.

10.9 Importance of Passenger Terminal Expenditures.

10.10 Space Requirements for Individual Facilities.

10.11 Baggage Handling.

10.12 Terminals for Low-Cost Carriers.

10.13 Expandability, Modularity, and Flexibility.

10.14 Number of Aircraft Gates.

10.15 Parking Configurations and Apron Layout.

10.16 Apron Facilities and Requirements.

11 Air Cargo Facilities.

11.1 Importance of Air Cargo.

11.2 Functions of Cargo Terminal.

11.3 Factors Affecting Size and Form of Cargo Terminal.

11.4 Flow through Airport Cargo Terminal.

11.5 Pallets, Containers, Igloos, and Other Unitized Systems.

11.6 Freight-Carrying Aircraft.

11.7 Documentation and Control.

11.8 Apron Cargo Handling.

11.9 Elements to Be Considered in Design of Air Freight Terminals.

11.10 Example of Design of Middle-Technology Freight Terminal.

11.11 Design of Highly Mechanized Cargo Terminal with Container Stacks and ETV.

11.12 Mail and Express Parcels Facilities.

11.13 Conclusion.

12 Airport Drainage and Pavement Design.


12.1 Introduction.

12.2 Estimation of Runoff.

12.3 Collection and Disposal of Runoff.

12.4 Subsurface Drainage.


12.5 Introduction.

12.6 Flexible-Pavement Design Methods (U.S. Practice).

12.7 Rigid-Pavement Design Methods (U.S. Practice).

12.8 Pavements for Light Aircraft.

12.9 Aircraft and Pavement Classification Numbers.

13 Airport Access.

13.1 Access Problem.

13.2 Determining Mix of Access Modes.

13.3 Available Access Modes.

13.4 Access Modal Choice Models.

13.5 Parking Space at Airports.

13.6 Curbfront Design.

13.7 Capacity of Access Routes.

13.8 Layout of Access.

13.9 Summary.

14 Heliports, STOLports, and Vertiports.

14.1 Introduction.

14.2 Helicopter Characteristics and Trends.

14.3 Planning and Design of Heliports.

14.4 Planning and Design of STOLports.

14.5 Planning and Design of STOL Facilities

14.6 Planning and Design of Vertiports.

15 Airport Modeling and Simulation.

15.1 Introduction.

15.2 Definitions and Concepts.

15.3 Airport Simulations.

15.4 Airfield–Airspace Simulation.

15.5 Environmental Simulation Models.

15.6 Airport–Landside Simulation.

15.7 Airport GIS.

16 Airport City.

16.1 Introduction.

16.2 Global City.

16.3 Building Blocks of Airport City.

16.4 Anatomy of Aerotropolis.

16.5 Airport Cities of the World.

16.6 Planning of Airport City and Aerotropolis.

17 Environmental Impacts of Airports.

17.1 Introduction.

17.2 Environmental Legislation.

17.3 Airport Environmental Guidance.

17.4 Environmental Review Process.

17.5 Air Emissions/Quality.

17.6 Biodiversity and Natural Resources.

17.7 Historic, Archaeological, Architectural, and Cultural Resources.

17.8 Noise and Land Use.

17.9 Social and Socioeconomic Resources.

17.10 Waste Management.

17.11 Water Resources.

17.12 Sustainable Development.


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Author Information

Norman J. Ashford is Professor Emeritus at Loughborough University of Technology in the UK. He has taught at Georgia Institute of Technology and Florida State University in the United States. He was editor of numerous professional journals and has published over 130 articles in various professional and research publications. The author of four multi-edition books, he currently serves as the Managing Director of his own aviation consulting company, which has worked on over 100 airports in over forty-three countries.

Saleh A. Mumayiz is an international consultant in airport planning and development for more than twenty-five years, serving with leading corporations in this field. He served in academic research and continuing education roles in leading U.S. universities. As an active participant in professional (ASCE) and research (TRB) organizations for more than twenty years, he served as chair and member of various TRB and ASCE committees, authoring papers and organizing conferences, workshops, and seminars.

Paul H. Wright is Professor Emeritus at Georgia Institute of Technology. He has been active in continuing education programs and has served as a consultant to transportation agencies in the United States and Central America. The author of numerous papers, he is coauthor of three other books: Highway Engineering, Transportation Engineering: Planning and Design, and Introduction to Engineering.

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