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Handbook of Measurement in Science and Engineering, Volume 1

Myer Kutz (Editor)
ISBN: 978-0-470-40477-5
1024 pages
January 2013
Handbook of Measurement in Science and Engineering, Volume 1 (0470404779) cover image

A multidisciplinary reference of engineering measurement tools, techniques, and applications—Volume 1

"When you can measure what you are speaking about, and express it in numbers, you know something about it; but when you cannot measure it, when you cannot express it in numbers, your knowledge is of a meager and unsatisfactory kind; it may be the beginning of knowledge, but you have scarcely in your thoughts advanced to the stage of science." — Lord Kelvin

Measurement falls at the heart of any engineering discipline and job function. Whether engineers are attempting to state requirements quantitatively and demonstrate compliance; to track progress and predict results; or to analyze costs and benefits, they must use the right tools and techniques to produce meaningful, useful data.

The Handbook of Measurement in Science and Engineering is the most comprehensive, up-to-date reference set on engineering measurements—beyond anything on the market today. Encyclopedic in scope, Volume 1 spans several disciplines—Civil and Environmental Engineering, Mechanical and Biomedical Engineering, and Industrial Engineering—and covers:

  • New Measurement Techniques in Structural Health Monitoring
  • Traffic Congestion Management
  • Measurements in Environmental Engineering
  • Dimensions, Surfaces, and Their Measurement
  • Luminescent Method for Pressure Measurement
  • Vibration Measurement
  • Temperature Measurement
  • Force Measurement
  • Heat Transfer Measurements for Non-Boiling Two-Phase Flow
  • Solar Energy Measurements
  • Human Movement Measurements
  • Physiological Flow Measurements
  • GIS and Computer Mapping
  • Seismic Testing of Highway Bridges
  • Hydrology Measurements
  • Mobile Source Emissions Testing
  • Mass Properties Measurement
  • Resistive Strain Measurement Devices
  • Acoustics Measurements
  • Pressure and Velocity Measurements
  • Heat Flux Measurement
  • Wind Energy Measurements
  • Flow Measurement
  • Statistical Quality Control
  • Industrial Energy Efficiency
  • Industrial Waste Auditing

Vital for engineers, scientists, and technical managers in industry and government, Handbook of Measurement in Science and Engineering will also prove ideal for members of major engineering associations and academics and researchers at universities and laboratories.

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VOLUME 1

PREFACE xxiii

CONTRIBUTORS xxvii

PART I CIVIL AND ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING 1

1 New and Emerging Technologies in Structural Health Monitoring 3
Merit Enckell, Jacob Egede Andersen, Branko Glisic, and Johan Silfwerbrand

1.1 Introduction, 5

1.2 Background, 6

1.3 New and Emerging Technologies, 8

1.4 Fiber-Optic Technology, 16

1.5 Acoustic Emission, 24

1.6 Radar Technology, 27

1.7 Global Positioning System, 31

1.8 Corrosion Monitoring Systems, 33

1.9 Weigh-in-Motion (WIM) Systems, 35

1.10 Components of Structural Health Monitoring System, 37

1.11 Structural Health Monitoring System Design, 41

1.12 System Procurement and Installation, 44

1.13 Application of Structural Health Monitoring Systems, 47

1.14 Discussion, 67

1.15 Conclusion, 69

Acknowledgments, 70

References, 71

2 Applications of GIS in Engineering Measurements 79
Gary S. Spring

2.1 Introduction, 79

2.2 Background, 80

2.3 Basic Principles of GIS, 81

2.4 Measurement-Based GIS Applications, 96

2.5 Implementation Issues, 97

2.6 Conclusion, 100

References, 102

3 Traffic Congestion Management 105
Nagui M. Rouphail

3.1 Introduction and Background, 105

3.2 Scope of the Chapter, 106

3.3 Organization of the Chapter, 107

3.4 Fundamentals of Vehicle Emission Estimation, 107

3.5 Inventory of Traffic Congestion Management Methods, 112

3.6 Assessing Emission Impacts of Traffic Congestion Management, 119

3.7 Summary, 128

Acknowledgments, 129

References, 129

4 Seismic Testing of Highway Bridges 133
Eric V. Monzon, Ahmad M. Itani, and Gokhan Pekcan

4.1 Introduction, 133

4.2 Similitude Requirements, 134

4.3 Specimen Fabrication, 141

4.4 Input Motion, 148

4.5 Instrumentation, 150

4.6 Data Acquisition and Processing, 155

4.7 Results, 157

References, 158

5 Measurements in Environmental Engineering 159
Daniel A. Vallero

5.1 Introduction, 159

5.2 Environmental Sampling Approaches, 166

5.3 Laboratory Analysis, 169

5.4 Measurement Uncertainty, 183

5.5 Measurement Decision Making, 186

5.6 Environmental Indicators, 191

5.7 Extending Measurement Data Using Models, 199

5.8 Summary, 200

Nomenclature, 200

References, 202

6 Hydrology Measurements 205
Todd C. Rasmussen

6.1 Introduction, 206

6.2 Precipitation, 209

6.3 Evapotranspiration, 212

6.4 Surface Flow, 216

6.5 Groundwater, 219

6.6 Soil Water, 223

6.7 Water Quality, 226

Suggested Readings, 231

7 Mobile Source Emissions Testing 233
Mohan Venigalla

7.1 Testing for Regulatory Compliance, 234

References, 240

PART II MECHANICAL AND BIOMEDICAL ENGINEERING 241

8 Dimensions, Surfaces, and their Measurement 243
Mikell P. Groover

8.1 Dimensions, Tolerances, and Related Attributes, 244

8.2 Conventional Measuring Instruments and Gages, 245

8.3 Surfaces, 254

References, 256

9 Mass Properties Measurement 259
David Tellet

9.1 Introduction, 260

9.2 Mass and Weight, 262

9.3 Measurement Methodology, 264

9.4 Weight and Mass Measurement, 274

9.5 Center of Gravity Measurement, 275

9.6 MOI Measurement, 280

9.7 POI Measurement, 284

9.8 Measuring Large Vehicles, 287

9.9 Sources of Uncertainty, 292

References, 300

10 Force Measurement 301
Patrick Collins

10.1 Introduction, 302

10.2 Force Transducers, 303

10.3 Universal Testing Machines, 306

10.4 The Strain Gauge Sensor, 307

10.5 Resonant Element Transducers, 311

10.6 Surface Acoustic Wave Transducers, 314

10.7 Dynamometers, 317

10.8 Optical Force Transducers, 317

10.9 Magneto-Elastic Transducers, 320

10.10 Force Balance Transducers, 321

10.11 Force Transducer Characteristics, 321

10.12 Calibration, 323

10.13 Conclusion, 329

Glossary of Terms, 329

References, 340

11 Resistive Strain Measurement Devices 343
Mark Tuttle

11.1 Preliminary Discussion, 343

11.2 Resistance Metal Strain Gages, 349

11.3 Semiconductor Strain Gages, 363

11.4 Liquid Metal Strain Gages, 365

References, 366

12 Vibration Measurement 367
Sheryl M. Gracewski and Nigel D. Ramoutar

12.1 Introduction, 367

12.2 One-Degree-of-Freedom System Response, 369

12.3 Multi-Degree-of-Freedom Systems and the Frequency Response Function, 373

12.4 Vibration Measurement Equipment and Techniques, 388

12.5 Experimental Modal Analysis, 405

12.6 Applications of Vibration Measurement, 423

Nomenclature, 428

References, 431

13 Acoustical Measurements 433
Brian E. Anderson, Jonathan D. Blotter, Kent L. Gee, and Scott D. Sommerfeldt

13.1 Introduction, 434

13.2 Fundamental Measures, 436

13.3 Microphones, 445

13.4 Sound Pressure Level Measurements, 451

13.5 Measurement of Sound Isolation, 454

13.6 Room Acoustics Measurements, 457

13.7 Community and Environmental Noise, 463

13.8 Sound Intensity Measurements, 465

13.9 Sound Power Measurements, 472

13.10 Sound Exposure Measurements, 476

References, 479

14 Temperature Measurement 483
Peter R. N. Childs

Summary, 484

14.1 Introduction, 484

14.2 Selection, 487

14.3 Invasive Temperature Measurement, 489

14.4 Semi-Invasive Methods, 511

14.5 Noninvasive Methods, 514

14.6 Conclusions, 519

Nomenclature, 519

References, 521

15 Pressure and Velocity Measurements 527
Richard S. Figliola and Donald E. Beasley

15.1 Pressure Concepts, 528

15.2 Pressure Reference Instruments, 530

15.3 Pressure Transducers, 536

15.4 Pressure Transducer Calibration, 543

15.5 Pressure Measurements in Moving Fluids, 544

15.6 Modeling Pressure and Fluid Systems, 548

15.7 Design and Installation: Transmission Effects, 548

15.8 Fluid Velocity Measuring Systems, 552

Nomenclature, 563

References, 564

16 Luminescent Method for Pressure Measurement 567
Gamal E. Khalil, Jim W. Crafton, Sergey D. Fonov, Marvin Sellers, and Dana Dabiri

16.1 Introduction, 567

16.2 Principles of Pressure-Sensitive Paint, 569

16.3 Pressure-Sensitive Luminescent Dyes, 571

16.4 PSP Polymer and Binder, 572

16.5 Measurement Methods, 574

16.6 Pressure-Sensitive Paint Measurements, 588

Acknowledgments, 611

References, 612

17 Flow Measurement 615
Jesse Yoder

17.1 New-Technology and Traditional Technology Flowmeters, 616

17.2 Trends in Flow Measurement, 627

Further Readings, 628

18 Heat Flux Measurement 629
Thomas E. Diller

18.1 Introduction, 630

18.2 Important Issues, 631

18.3 Gages Based on Spatial Temperature Difference, 634

18.4 Gages Based on Temperature Change with Time, 643

18.5 Gages Based on Active Heating Methods, 648

18.6 Calibration and Errors, 653

References, 655

19 Heat Transfer Measurements for Nonboiling Two-Phase Flow 661
Afshin J. Ghajar and Clement C. Tang

19.1 Introduction, 661

19.2 Experimental Setup for Horizontal and Slightly Inclined Pipes, 662

19.3 Instruments for Measurement and Data Acquisition, 666

19.4 Heat Transfer Experiment Procedures, 667

19.5 Verifying the Functionality of the Experimental Setup, 670

19.6 Experimental Results of Two-Phase Flow, 673

19.7 Concluding Remarks, 682

Nomenclature, 683

References, 684

20 Solar Energy Measurements 687
Tariq Muneer and Yieng Wei Tham

20.1 Introduction, 688

20.2 Measurement Equipment, 694

20.3 Equipment Error and Uncertainty, 703

20.4 Operational Errors, 704

20.5 Diffuse Radiation Data Measurement Errors, 704

20.6 Types of Sensors and their Accuracy, 711

20.7 Modern Developments, 711

20.8 Data Quality Assessment, 714

20.9 Statistical Evaluation of Models, 716

20.10 Outlier Analysis, 722

Acknowledgments, 722

References, 723

21 Wind Energy Measurements 727
Peter Gregg

21.1 Introduction, 728

21.2 Concepts, 728

21.3 Measurements, 731

21.4 Evaluation, 739

References, 747

22 Human Movement Measurements 749
Rahman Davoodi

22.1 Introduction, 749

22.2 Characterization of Human Movement, 750

22.3 Optical Motion Capture Systems, 751

22.4 Magnetic Motion Capture Systems, 754

22.5 Inertial Motion Capture Systems, 756

22.6 Discussion, 761

Acknowledgment, 762

References, 762

23 Flow Measurement 765
Arnold A. Fontaine, Keefe B. Manning, and Steven Deutsch

23.1 Introduction, 765

23.2 Flow Measurement Applications, 768

References, 799

PART III INDUSTRIAL ENGINEERING 803

24 Statistical Quality Control 805
Magd E. Zohdi

24.1 Measurements and Quality Control, 805

24.2 Dimension and Tolerance, 805

24.3 Quality Control, 806

24.4 Interrelationship of Tolerances of Assembled Products, 812

24.5 Operation Characteristic (OC) Curve, 812

24.6 Control Charts for Attributes, 812

24.7 Acceptance Sampling, 815

24.8 Defense Department Acceptance Sampling by Variables, 817

Further Readings, 817

25 Evaluating and Selecting Technology-Based Projects 819
Hans J. Thamhain

25.1 Management Perspective, 819

25.2 Quantitative Approaches, 821

25.3 Qualitative Approaches, 826

25.4 Recommendations, 828

Variables and Abbreviations, 831

References, 831

26 Manufacturing Systems Evaluation 833
Walter W. Olson

26.1 Introduction, 833

26.2 Components of Environmentally Conscious Manufacturing, 834

26.3 Manufacturing Systems, 835

26.4 System Effects on ECM, 838

26.5 Assessment, 840

26.6 Summary, 844

References, 845

27 Measuring Performance of Chemical Process Equipment 847
Alan Cross

27.1 Introduction, 847

27.2 Direct Fired Heater Measurement and Process Control

Instrumentation, 848

27.3 Crushing and Grinding Equipment Measurements, 851

References, 858

28 Industrial Energy Efficiency 859
B. Gopalakrishnan, D. P. Gupta, Y. Mardikar, and S. Chaudhari

28.1 Introduction, 860

28.2 Literature Review, 863

28.3 Data Analysis of Energy Efficiency Measures, 864

28.4 Energy Efficiency Measures in Major Energy Consuming

Equipment, 872

28.5 Case Studies of Development of Energy-Efficiency Measures, 879

28.6 Conclusion, 881

Acknowledgments, 881

References, 881

29 Industrial Waste Auditing 885
C. Visvanathan

29.1 Overview, 885

29.2 Waste-Minimization Programs, 886

29.3 Waste-Minimization Cycle, 888

29.4 Waste Auditing, 890

29.5 Conclusion, 909

Further Readings, 910

30 Organizational Performance Measurement 911
Jennifer A. Farris, Eileen M. Van Aken, and Geert Letens

30.1 Introduction, 911

30.2 Summary, 940

References, 940

INDEX

 

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MYER KUTZ holds engineering degrees from MIT and RPI. He was vice president and general manager of Wiley's STM Division and has consulted and/or authored for most of the major professional and technical publishing houses. He is the author of nine books and the editor of more than a dozen handbooks.

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