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Thermodynamics of Pharmaceutical Systems: An introduction to Theory and Applications, 2nd Edition

ISBN: 978-0-470-42512-1
363 pages
January 2010
Thermodynamics of Pharmaceutical Systems: An introduction to Theory and Applications, 2nd Edition (0470425121) cover image
Designed for pharmacy students

Now updated for its Second Edition, Thermodynamics of Pharmaceutical Systems provides pharmacy students with a much-needed introduction to the mathematical intricacies of thermodynamics in relation to practical laboratory applications. Designed to meet the needs of the contemporary curriculum in pharmacy schools, the text makes these connections clear, emphasizing specific applications to pharmaceutical systems including dosage forms and newer drug delivery systems.

Students and practitioners involved in drug discovery, drug delivery, and drug action will benefit from Connors' and Mecozzi's authoritative treatment of the fundamentals of thermodynamics as well as their attention to drug molecules and experimental considerations. They will appreciate, as well, the significant revisions to the Second Edition. Expanding the book's scope and usefulness, the new edition:

  • Explores in greater depth topics most relevant to the pharmacist such as drug discovery and drug delivery, supramolecular chemistry, molecular recognition, and nanotechnologies

  • Moves the popular review of mathematics, formerly an appendix, to the front of the book

  • Adds new textual material and figures in several places, most notably in the chapter treating noncovalent chemical interactions

  • Two new appendices provide ancillary material that expands on certain matters bordering the subject of classical thermodynamics

Thermodynamics need not be a mystery nor confined to the realm of mathematical theory. Thermodynamics of Pharmaceutical Systems, Second Edition demystifies for students the profound thermodynamic applications in the laboratory while also serving as a handy resource for practicing researchers.

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PREFACE.

PREFACE TO THE FIRST EDITION.

0. Review of Mathematics.

0.1. Introduction.

0.2. Dimensions and Units.

0.3. Logarithms and Exponents.

0.4. Algebraic and Graphical Analysis.

0.5. Dealing with Change.

0.6. Statistical Treatment of Data.

Problems.

I BASIC THERMODYNAMICS.

1. Energy and the First Law of Thermodynamics.

1.1. Fundamental Concepts.

1.2. The First Law of Thermodynamics.

1.3. The Enthalpy.

Problems.

2. The Entropy Concept.

2.1. The Entropy Defined.

2.2. The Second Law of Thermodynamics.

2.3. Applications of the Entropy Concept.

Problems.

3. The Free Energy.

3.1. Properties of the Free Energy.

3.2. The Chemical Potential.

Problems.

4. Equilibrium.

4.1. Conditions for Equilibrium.

4.2. Physical Processes.

4.3. Chemical Equilibrium.

Problems.

II THERMODYNAMICS OF PHYSICAL PROCESSES.

5. Introduction to Physical Processes.

5.1. Scope.

5.2. Concentration Scales.

5.3. Standard States.

Problems.

6. Phase Transformations.

6.1. Pure Substances.

6.2. Multicomponent Systems.

Problems.

7. Solutions of Nonelectrolytes.

7.1. Ideal Solutions.

7.2. Nonideal Solutions.

7.3. Partitioning Between Liquid Phases.

Problems.

8. Solutions of Electrolytes.

8.1. Coulombic Interaction and Ionic Dissociation.

8.2. Mean Ionic Activity and Activity Coefficient.

8.3. The Debye–Hückel Theory.

Problems.

9. Colligative Properties.

9.1. Boiling Point Elevation.

9.2. Freezing Point Depression.

9.3. Osmotic Pressure.

9.4. Isotonicity Calculations.

Problems.

10. Solubility.

10.1. Solubility as an Equilibrium Constant.

10.2. The Ideal Solubility.

10.3. Temperature Dependence of the Solubility.

10.4. Solubility of Slightly Soluble Salts.

10.5. Solubilities of Nonelectrolytes: Further Issues.

Problems.

11. Surfaces and Interfaces.

11.1. Thermodynamic Properties.

11.2. Adsorption.

Problems.

III THERMODYNAMICS OF CHEMICAL PROCESSES.

12. Acid–Base Equilibria.

12.1. Acid–Base Theory.

12.2. pH Dependence of Acid–Base Equilibria.

12.3. Calculation of Solution pH.

12.4. Acid–Base Titrations.

12.5. Aqueous Solubility of Weak Acids and Bases.

12.6. Nonaqueous Acid–Base Behavior.

12.7. Acid–Base Structure and Strength.

Problems.

13. Electrical Work.

13.1. Introduction.

13.2. Oxidation–Reduction Reactions.

13.3. Electrochemical Cells.

13.4. pH Measurement.

13.5. Ion-Selective Membrane Electrodes.

Problems.

14. Noncovalent Binding Equilibria.

14.1. Introduction.

14.2. The Noncovalent Interactions.

14.3. Binding Models.

14.4. Measurement of Binding Constants.

14.5. Applications.

Problems.

APPENDIXES.

Appendix A Physical Constants.

Appendix B Kinetic Theory of Gases.

Appendix C Extrathermodynamic Relationships.

ANSWERS TO PROBLEMS.

BIBLIOGRAPHY.

INDEX.

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Kenneth A. Connors is Professor Emeritus in the School of Pharmacy at the University of Wisconsin at Madison. His research interests include organic analytical reactions, their catalysis, mechanisms, and applications, kinetic methods for the analysis of mixtures and the chemistry of molecular complexes.

Sandro Mecozzi received his PhD in 1996 from the California Institute of Technology, and joined the faculty of the Division of Pharmaceutical Sciences at the School of Pharmacy, University of Wisconsin-Madison, in 1999. He currently holds joint appointments in the departments of pharmacy and chemistry. His research interests include the areas of RNA recognition, fluorous self-assembly, and the development of novel drug delivery systems.

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  • Provides more in-depth discussions on drug discovery and drug delivery, supramolecular chemistry, molecular recognition, and nanotechnologies
  • Moves the appendix of the 1st edition to the front of the book (Chapter 0), which reviews pertinent math for greater convenience to the student
  • Adds new textual material and figures in several places, most notably in Chapter 14, the chapter treating noncovalent chemical interactions; it is this chapter that most clearly distinguishes the content of this book from that of other thermodynamic texts.
  • Adds two new appendices providing ancillary material that expands certain matters bordering the subject of classical thermodynamics
  • Includes additional end of chapter problems for students
  • Includes a solutions manual for professors for end of chapter problems
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  • The only textbook of its kind designed for students in the College of Pharmacy
  • Meets the needs of the contemporary curriculum designed at schools of pharmacy today and offers flexibility via the modular approach
  • Differs from other thermodynamics texts in its third part, which deals with chemical processes
  • Includes separate Solutions Manual  with answers to problems for academic adopters
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"In this 2nd edition, Professor Connors continues his career-long commitment to ensuring that pharmacy students comprehend the complexity of the chemistry that is so central to the practice of pharmacy and the overall disciplines that comprise the Pharmaceutical Sciences. While this book will continue to be invaluable in those instances where required or elective courses focused on mechanisms and pharmaceutical systems remain a part of the Professional Pharmacy curriculum, it also could prove to be a unique resource for first year pharmaceutics graduate students who enter these programs with undergraduate majors in the biological, rather than the chemical sciences.... Consistent with the treatment of thermodynamics, kinetics and analytical chemistry in previous textbooks, the authors lay out a logical systematic approach that allow students to focus on basic definitions and principles, which then build an understanding through increasingly complex problems.... While this text was developed for pharmacy students, its applicability to first year graduate students is noteworthy. The pharmaceutical sciences have always struggled with the varied backgrounds of a diverse student population and in most cases background material in either the physical chemical or biological sciences, is desirable depending upon their undergraduate backgrounds. With the increasingly biological orientation of the pharmaceutical sciences a large number of incoming students have not had the basics of physical chemistry or thermodynamics which are fundamental to drug discovery, design and understanding mechanism of transport and action in the body. In addition, the industry as well as the Food and Drug Administration through its Critical Path initiative express an urgent need to move towards much scientific orientation of formulation and manufacture to try to reduce the extensive time needed to develop, test and eventually market a drug often due to historic trial and error processes based upon previously approved processes. This textbook could fill that void nicely in many graduate programs and lay the foundation for higher level courses."
Dr. Jordan Cohen, Vice President for Research, University of Iowa
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