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Long-Term Memory Problems in Children and Adolescents: Assessment, Intervention, and Effective Instruction

ISBN: 978-0-470-43831-2
408 pages
August 2010
Long-Term Memory Problems in Children and Adolescents: Assessment, Intervention, and Effective Instruction (0470438312) cover image
“This book will be a valuable resource for psychologists and educators who work with children or adolescents who are having difficulties with memory and learning. Translating theory and research into practice is a talent that Dr. Dehn possesses and we will benefit from his professional skills.”
— From the Foreword by Daniel C. Miller, PhD, ABPP, ABSNP, NCSP

An indispensable guide that examines the effect of long-term memory functions on children's learning

Long-Term Memory Problems in Children and Adolescents: Assessment, Intervention, and Effective Instruction is the first book of its kind for psychologists, school psychologists, and special education teachers who need an overview of long-term memory as it relates to learning and education. It presents the best practices for assessing long-term memory functions, as well as selecting and using evidence-based instructional practices with memory-impaired students.

This useful and timely guide bridges theory and practice to provide professional guidance with coverage of:

  • Risk factors that can lead to long-term memory impairments

  • How long-term memory relates to other types of memory

  • The subcomponents and processes of long-term memory and how they relate to academic achievement

  • What is known about the neuroanatomy of how memories are formed

  • The developmental trajectory of memory and learning

  • Common types of memory dysfunction

  • Memory assessment strategies, interventions for memory problems, and instructional practices that support memory

Author Milton Dehn draws on his extensive experience as a trainer and workshop presenter, school psychologist, and educator to present both the theory and research on long-term memory in children and adolescents in this book. Specific step-by-step guidance and hands-on case studies enable professionals to identify how memory can be assessed as well as the interventions that can be linked to the results of the assessment.

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Foreword Daniel C. Miller xi

Preface xiii

Acknowledgments xvii

Chapter 1 Introduction and Overview 1

Memory and Learning 4

Memory Problems 6

Applying Memory Research in the Classroom 8

Overview of the Chapters 8

Learning Objectives 10

Chapter 2 Memory Systems and Processes 13

The Flow of Information 15

Sensory Memory 16

Short-Term Memory 16

Working Memory 21

Long-Term Memory Systems 27

Long-Term Memory Processes 35

Forgetting 47

Interference 49

The Organization of Memory 51

Implications for Memory Assessment 53

Educational and Training Implications 54

Memory Fundamentals 54

Chapter 3 Memory Neuroanatomy, Development, and Dysfunction 57

The Neuroanatomy of Memory 58

Short-Term and Working Memory Structures 68

Neurological Principles of Memory 71

The Development of Long-Term Memory 72

Development of Metamemory and Effective Strategies 75

Fundamentals of Memory Development 81

Related Cognitive Processes 82

Memory Dysfunction 86

Chapter 4 Risk Factors for Memory Impairments 91

Acquired Brain Injury 94

Medical Conditions 99

Developmental Disorders 107

Mental Disorders 114

Substance Abuse 118

Findings that Apply to All At-Risk Groups 125

Assessment Implications 126

Implications for Interventions and Classroom Instruction 127

Chapter 5 Long-Term Memory Assessment Strategies 129

A Comprehensive Explicit Memory Assessment 130

Planning a Personalized Assessment 138

Cross-Battery and Selective Testing 142

Memory Assessment Challenges 143

Collecting Medical, Developmental, and Academic History 145

Interviewing Teachers, Parents, and Students 146

Observation 149

Assessment of Metamemory and Strategy Development 152

Collecting Classroom Examination Data 156

Guidelines for Administering Standardized Memory Tests 157

General Guidelines for Interpretation of Test Results 159

Analysis of Memory Test Scores 163

Specific Guidelines for Interpretation of Memory Assessment Results 168

Case Study 176

Chapter 6 Assessing Long-Term Memory With Standardized Tests 179

California Verbal Learning Test—Children’s Version (CVLT-C) 180

Children’s Memory Scale (CMS) 184

The NEPSY II 187

The Rivermead Behavioural Memory Test for Children (RBMT-C) 190

Test of Memory and Learning, Second Edition (TOMAL-2) 192

Wide Range Assessment of Memory and Learning, Second Edition (WRAML2) 196

Wechsler Memory Scale1-Fourth Edition (WMS1-IV) 200

Cognitive, Intellectual, and Achievement Batteries 205

Other Scales With Long-Term Memory Measures 221

Chapter 7 Interventions for Memory Problems 225

Desirable Outcomes for Memory Interventions 227

Factors Related to Success 228

Concerns About Memory Interventions 230

Selecting and Designing Interventions 232

Setting Goals and Measuring Progress 233

General Memory Strategy Training Recommendations 234

Metamemory: The Cornerstone of the Intervention 235

Demonstrating the Efficacy of Memory Strategies 239

Promoting Generalization and Maintenance 241

Length of Training 242

Memory Strategies 242

Mnemonics 251

Computerized Interventions 256

Home Interventions 257

External Memory Aids 258

Psychopharmacological Treatments 260

Memory Interventions for Traumatic Brain Injury 261

Interventions for Other Disabled and At-Risk Populations 263

Matching Interventions With Memory Deficits 263

A Typical Intervention 268

Chapter 8 Classroom Instruction That Supports Memory 271

The Mnemonic Classroom 273

Metamemory Instruction 275

Instructional Practices That Enhance Memory 275

Study Skills That Enhance Memory 297

Instructional Methods for Severe Memory Impairments 299

Accommodations and Memory Aids 305

Teaching Memory Strategies 306

Teaching Mnemonics 306

Instruction That Reduces Working Memory Load 308

Summary: Long-Term Memory Principles and Recommendations for Educators 312

Chapter 9 Case Studies and Recommendations 315

Assessment Case Study 315

Intervention Case Studies 318

Illustrative Report 327

Recommendations for Future Research 332

Recommendations for Memory Test Development 333

AppendixA Memory Assessment Plan 335

Appendix B Analysis of Memory Testing Results 337

AppendixC Conversion Table: Scaled Scores to Standard Scores 339

References 341

Index 377

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MILTON J. DEHN, EdD, NCSP, is the cofounder and Program Director of Schoolhouse Tutoring®, an agency that provides assessment, tutoring, and instructional support for students of all ages and abilities. Formerly a practicing school psychologist, associate professor and director of a graduate training program in school psychology, he is also author of Working Memory and Academic Learning: Assessment and Intervention and Essentials of Processing Assessment, both published by Wiley.
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