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Foundations of Banking Risk: An Overview of Banking, Banking Risks, and Risk-Based Banking Regulation

ISBN: 978-0-470-44219-7
144 pages
August 2009
Foundations of Banking Risk: An Overview of Banking, Banking Risks, and Risk-Based Banking Regulation (0470442190) cover image


GARP's Foundations of Banking Risk and Regulation introduces risk professionals to the advanced components and terminology in banking risk and regulation globally. It helps them develop an understanding of the methods for the measurement and management of credit risk and operational risk, and the regulation of minimum capital requirements. It educates them about banking regulation and disclosure of market information. The book is GARP's required text used by risk professionals looking to obtain their International Certification in Banking Risk and Regulation.
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Table of Contents



CHAPTER 1 Functions and Forms of Banking.

1.1 Banks and Banking.

1.1.1 Core Bank Services.

1.1.2 Banks in the Economy.

1.1.3 Money Creation.

1.1.4 Payment Services.

1.1.5 Other Banking Services.

1.2 Different BankTypes.

1.2.1 Retail Banks.

1.2.2 Wholesale Banks.

1.2.3 Central Banks.

1.3 Banking Risks.

1.3.1 Credit Risk.

1.3.2 Market Risk.

1.3.3 Operational Risk.

1.3.4 Other Risk Types.

1.4 Forces Shaping the Banking Industry.

CHAPTER 2 Managing Banks.

2.1 Bank CorporateGovernance.

2.2 Balance Sheet and Income Statement.

2.2.1 Bank Assets.

2.2.2 Bank Liabilities.

2.2.3 Equity.

2.2.4 Income Statement.

2.2.5 The Role of Bank's Equity.

2.3 Asset and LiabilityManagement.

2.3.1 Interest Rate Risk.

2.3.2 Liquidity Risk.

2.4 Loan Losses.

2.4.1 Valuing Assets in the Trading Book.

2.4.2 Value of Assets in the Banking Book, Performing Loans.

2.4.3 Value of Assets in the Banking Book, Non-Performing Loans.

2.4.4 Provision For Loan Losses and Loan Loss Reserves.

2.4.5 Loan Loss Reserves and Loan Losses.

CHAPTER 3 Banking Regulation.

3.1 FromLiquidity Crisis to Bank Panics.

3.1.1 Liquidity Crisis and Bank Run.

3.1.2 Bank Panics.

3.2 Foundations of Bank Regulation.

3.2.1 Regulatory Objectives.

3.2.2 The Regulatory Process.

3.2.3 Stabilization: The Lender of Last Resort.

3.3 International Regulation of Bank Risks.

3.3.1 Bank for International Settlements.

3.3.2 The Basel Committee.

3.3.3 The Basel I Accord.

3.3.4 The Market Risk Amendment.

3.3.5 Weaknesses of Bank Capital Requirements in Basel I Accord.

3.3.6 The Basel II Accord.

3.3.7 Adopting Basel II.

3.4 Deposit Insurance.

3.4.1 Deposit Insurance Coverage.

3.4.2 Deposit Insurance Around the World.

3.5 The Road Ahead.

CHAPTER 4 Credit Risk.

4.1 Introduction to Credit Risk.

4.2 Lenders.

4.2.1 Investment Banks.

4.2.2 Credit Rating Agencies.

4.3 Borrowers.

4.3.1 Retail Borrowers.

4.3.2 Corporate Borrowers.

4.3.3 Sovereign Borrowers.

4.3.4 Public Borrowers.

4.4 Characteristics of Credit Products.

4.4.1 Maturity.

4.4.2 Commitment Specification.

4.4.3 Loan Purpose.

4.4.4 Repayment Source.

4.4.5 Collateral Requirements.

4.4.6 Covenant Requirements.

4.4.7 Loan Repayment.

4.5 Types of Credit Products.

4.5.1 Agricultural Loans.

4.5.2 Asset-Based or Secured Lending.

4.5.3 Automobile Loans.

4.5.4 Commercial Paper.

4.5.5 Factoring.

4.5.6 Home Equity Credit Lines and Home Equity Loans.

4.5.7 Leasing.

4.5.8 Mortgages.

4.5.9 Overdraft Facilities.

4.5.10 Project, or Infrastructure, Finance.

4.5.11 Revolving Lines of Credit.

4.5.12 Syndicated Loans.

CHAPTER 5 The Credit Process and Credit Risk Management.

5.1 The Credit Process.

5.1.1 Identifying the Credit Opportunity.

5.1.2 Credit Evaluation.

5.1.3 Credit Decision Making.

5.1.4 Credit Disbursement.

5.1.5 Credit Monitoring.

5.2  e Credit Analysis Process.

5.2.1 The Five Cs of Credit.

5.2.2 The Credit Analysis Path.

5.2.3 Business or Macro Risks.

5.2.4 Financial, or Micro, Risks.

5.2.5 Structural Risk.

5.2.6 Information Sources.

5.3 PortfolioManagement.

5.3.1 Concentration Risk.

5.3.2 Securitizations.

5.4 Credit Risk and Basel II Accord.

5.4.1 The Standardized Approach.

5.4.2 Internal Ratings-Based Approaches.

5.4.3 Common Features to IRB Approaches.

5.4.4 Minimum Requirements for IRB Approaches.

CHAPTER 6 Market Risk.

6.1 Introduction to Market Risk.

6.2 Basics of Financial Instruments.

6.2.1 Currencies.

6.2.2 Fixed Income Instruments.

6.2.3 Interbank Loans.

6.2.4 Equities.

6.2.5 Commodities.

6.2.6 Derivatives.

6.3 Trading.

6.3.1 Fundamental Trading Positions.

6.3.2 Bid-Ask Spreads.

6.3.3 Exchange and Over-the-Counter Markets.

6.4 Market Risk Measurement and Management.

6.4.1 Types of Market Risk.

6.4.2 Value-at-Risk.

6.4.3 Stress Testing and Scenario Analysis.

6.4.4 Market Risk Reporting.

6.4.5 Hedging.

6.5 Market Risk Regulation— The 1996 Market Risk Amendment.

CHAPTER 7 Operational Risk.

7.1 What isOperational Risk?

7.2 Operational Risk Events.

7.2.1 Internal Process Risk.

7.2.2 People Risk.

7.2.3 Systems Risk.

7.2.4 External Risk.

7.2.5 Legal Risk.

7.3 Operational Loss Events.

7.3.1 High-Frequency/Low-Impact Risks (HFLI).

7.3.2 Low-Frequency/High-Impact Risks (LFHI).

7.4 Operational RiskManagement.

7.4.1 Functional Structure of Operational Risk Management Activities.

7.4.2 Operational Risk Identification, Assessment, and Measurement.

7.4.3 Example of Operational Risk Measurement and Management.

7.5 Basel II andOperational Risk.

7.5.1 The Basic Indicator Approach.

7.5.2 The Standardized Approach.

7.5.3 The Advanced Measurement Approach.

7.5.4 Criteria for Using Different Approaches.

7.5.5 Basel II and Operational Risk Management.

CHAPTER 8 Regulatory Capital and Supervision Under Basel II.

8.1 Bank Regulatory Capital.

8.1.1 Bank Regulatory Capital.

8.1.2 Tier 1 Capital.

8.1.3 Tier 2 Capital.

8.1.4 Tier 3 Capital.

8.1.5 Deductions and Adjustments from Regulatory Capital.

8.1.6 New Capital.

8.2 Basel II Minimum Capital Requirement.

8.3 Pillar 2—Supervisory Review.

8.3.1 Four Key Principles of Supervisory Review.

8.3.2 Specific Issues to Address During Supervisory Review.

8.3.3 Interest Rate Risk in the Banking Book.

8.4 Pillar 3—MarketDiscipline.

8.4.1 Accounting Disclosures.

8.4.2 General Disclosure Requirements.

8.4.3 Disclosing Risk Exposure and Risk Assessment.

8.5 Beyond Regulatory Capital.

8.5.1 Calculating Economic Capital.

8.5.2 Risk-Adjusted Performance Measures.

8.6 Banks,Bank Risks, and Regulation.



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