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Thermodynamics for the Practicing Engineer

ISBN: 978-0-470-44468-9
414 pages
July 2009
Thermodynamics for the Practicing Engineer (0470444681) cover image
Enables you to easily advance from thermodynamics principles to applications

Thermodynamics for the Practicing Engineer, as the title suggests, is written for all practicing engineers and anyone studying to become one. Its focus therefore is on applications of thermodynamics, addressing both technical and pragmatic problems in the field. Readers are provided a solid base in thermodynamics theory; however, the text is mostly dedicated to demonstrating how theory is applied to solve real-world problems.

This text's four parts enable readers to easily gain a foundation in basic principles and then learn how to apply them in practice:

  • Part One: Introduction. Sets forth the basic principles of thermodynamics, reviewing such topics as units and dimensions, conservation laws, gas laws, and the second law of thermodynamics.
  • Part Two: Enthalpy Effects. Examines sensible, latent, chemical reaction, and mixing enthalpy effects.

  • Part Three: Equilibrium Thermodynamics. Addresses both principles and calculations for phase, vapor-liquid, and chemical reaction equilibrium.

  • Part Four: Other Topics. Reviews such important issues as economics, numerical methods, open-ended problems, environmental concerns, health and safety management, ethics, and exergy.

Throughout the text, detailed illustrative examples demonstrate how all the principles, procedures, and equations are put into practice. Additional practice problems enable readers to solve real-world problems similar to the ones that they will encounter on the job.

Readers will gain a solid working knowledge of thermodynamics principles and applications upon successful completion of this text. Moreover, they will be better prepared when approaching/addressing advanced material and more complex problems.

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PREFACE.

Part I INTRODUCTION.

1. Basic Calculations.

Introduction.

Units and Dimensions.

Conversion of Units.

The Gravitational Constant, gc.

Significant Figures and Scientific Notation.

References.

2. Process Variables.

Introduction.

Temperature.

Pressure.

Moles and Molecular Weights.

Mass and Volume.

Viscosity.

Heat Capacity.

Thermal Conductivity.

Reynolds Number.

pH.

Vapor Pressure.

Property Estimation.

References.

3. Gas Laws.

Introduction.

Boyle's and Charles' Laws.

The Ideal Gas Law.

Standard Conditions.

Partial Pressure and Partial Volume.

Critical and Reduced Properties.

Non-Ideal Gas Behavior.

Non-Ideal Mixtures.

References.

4. Conservation Laws.

Introduction.

The Conservation Laws.

The Conservation Law for Momentum.

The Conservation Law for Mass.

The Conservation Law for Energy.

References.

5. Stoichiometry.

Introduction.

Combustion of Methane.

Excess and Limiting Reactant(s).

Combustion of Ethane.

Combustion of Chlorobenzene.

References.

6. The Second Law of Thermodynamics.

Introduction.

Qualitative Review of the Second Law.

Quantitative Review of the Second Law.

Ideal Work and Lost Work.

The Heat Exchanger Dilemma.

Chemical Plant and Process Applications.

The Third Law of Thermodynamics.

References.

Part II ENTHALPY EFFECTS.

7. Sensible Enthalpy Effects.

Introduction.

The Gibbs Phase Rule (GPR).

Enthalpy Values.

Heat Capacity Values.

Predictive Methods for Heat Capacity.

References.

8. Latent Enthalpy Effects.

Introduction.

The Clausius-Clapeyron (C-C) Equation.

Predictive Methods: Normal Boiling Point.

Predictive Methods: Other Temperatures.

Industrial Applications.

References.

9. Enthalpy of Mixing Effects.

Introduction.

Enthalpy-Concentration Diagrams.

H2SO4-H2O Diagram.

NaOH-H2O Diagram.

Enthalpy of Mixing at Infinite Dilution.

Evaporator Design.

References.

10. Chemical Reaction Enthalpy Effects.

Introduction.

Standard Enthalpy of Formation.

Standard Enthalpy of Reaction.

Effect of Temperature on Enthalpy of Reaction.

Gross and Net Heating Values.

References.

Part III EQUILIBRIUM THERMODYNAMICS.

11. Phase Equilibrium Principles.

Introduction.

Psychometric Chart.

Raoult's Law.

Henry's Law.

Raoult's Law vs Henry's Law.

Vapor-Solid Equilibrium.

Liquid-Solid Equilibrium.

References.

12. Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium Calculations.

Introduction.

The DePriester Charts.

Raoult’s Law Diagrams.

Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium in Nonideal Solutions.

NRTL Diagrams.

Wilson Diagrams.

Relative Volatility.

References.

13. Chemical Reaction Equilibrium Principles.

Introduction.

Standard Free Energy of Formation, ∆Gof.

Standard Free Energy of Reaction, ∆Go.

The Chemical Reaction Equilibrium Constant, K.

Effect of Temperature on ∆Go and K: Simplified Approach.

Effect of Temperature on ∆Go and K: α, β, and γ Data.

Effect of Temperature on ∆Go and K: a, b, and c Data.

Procedures to Determine K.

References.

14. Chemical Reaction Equilibrium Applications.

Introduction.

Rate vs Equilibrium Considerations.

Extent of Reaction.

The Reaction Coordinate.

Gas Phase Reactions.

Equilibrium Conversion Calculations: Simplified Approach.

Equilibrium Conversion Calculations: Rigorous Approach.

Other Reactions.

References.

Part IV OTHER TOPICS.

15. Economic Considerations.

Introduction.

Capital Costs.

Operating Costs.

Project Evaluation.

Perturbation Studies in Optimization.

References.

16. Open-Ended Problems.

Introduction.

Developing Students’ Power of Critical Thinking.

Creativity.

Brainstorming.

Inquiring Minds.

References.

17. Other ABET Topics.

Introduction.

Environmental Management.

Health, Safety, and Accident Management.

Numerical Methods.

Ethics.

References.

18. Fuel Options.

Introduction.

Fuel Properties.

Natural Gas.

Liquid Fuels.

Coal.

Fuel Selection.

Stoichiometric Calculations.

References.

19. Exergy: The Concept of "Quality Energy".

Introduction.

The Quality of Heat vs Work.

Exergy.

Quantitative Exergy Analysis.

Environmental Impact.

Exergy Efficiency.

References.

Appendix.

I. Steam Tables.

A. Saturated Steam.

B. Superheated Steam.

C. Saturated Steam-Ice.

II. SI Units.

III. Conversion Constants.

IV. Selected Common Abbreviations.

References.

Index.

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LOUIS THEODORE, ENG SCD, is a consultant for Theodore Tutorials, a company specializing in providing training solutions to industry, academia, and government. In addition to receiving awards from the International Air & Waste Management Association and the American Society for Engineering Education, Dr. Theodore is the author/coauthor of eighty-one books, including Nanotechnology: Basic Calculations for Engineers and Scientists (Wiley) and Handbook of Chemical and Environmental Engineering Calculations (Wiley), plus nearly 100 technical publications. He was recently (2008) recognized at Madison Square Garden for his contributions to basketball and the youth of America.

FRANCESCO RICCI is currently a junior chemical engineering student at Manhattan College. A member of both Tau Beta Pi and Omega Chi Epsilon, and the recipient of numerous academic awards and scholarships, Mr. Ricci is the author of the solutions manual to this text, and a contributing author to the 2009 title Introduction to Environmental Management.

TIMOTHY VANVLIET is currently a senior chemical engineering student at Manhattan College. Mr. VanVliet is a member of Omega Chi Epsilon, and has received numerous academic awards and scholarships.

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