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ZBrush Digital Sculpting Human Anatomy

ISBN: 978-0-470-45026-0
416 pages
January 2010
ZBrush Digital Sculpting Human Anatomy (0470450266) cover image
Taking into account that many of today's digital artists -- particularly 3D character animators -- lack foundational artistic instruction, this book teaches anatomy in a coherent and succinct style. A clear writing style explains how to sculpt an accurate human figure, starting with the skeleton and working out to muscle, fat, and skin. Insightful explanations enable you to quickly and easily create and design characters that can be used in film, game, or print, and allows you to gain a strong understanding of the foundational artistic concepts.

Note: CD-ROM/DVD and other supplementary materials are not included as part of eBook file.

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Introduction xiii

Chapter 1 Blocking In the Mesh 1

Sculpting the Figure 2

Gesture, Form, and Proportion 3

Gesture 3

Form 5

Proportion 7

From Basic Forms to Complex Shapes 9

Anatomical Terminology 10

Creating a Base Sculpting Mesh 15

Building a Sculpt Mesh in Maya 15

Building a Sculpt Mesh in ZBrush 26

What’s Next? 37

Chapter 2 Gesture and Masses 39

Looking at the Figure as a Whole 40

Crests and Valleys 40

Plane and Profile Analysis 42

Sculpting a Basic Figure 42

Getting Started 43

The Legs 48

The Chest and Shoulders 54

Analyzing Planes 68

What’s Next? 69

Chapter 3 The Head and Neck 71

The Skull 72

Proportions and Placement of Facial Features 74

Placing the Features 74

Sculpting the Basic Skull 75

Refining the Initial Sculpt 84

The Facial Muscles 90

The Masseter and Temporalis Muscles 92

The Zygomaticus Major and Minor 94

The Orbicularis Oris 95

The Triangularis and the Mentalis: The Chin 96

The Frontalis: The Forehead 96

The Orbicularis Oculi 97

The Buccinator Muscle 100

The Facial Features 100

The Nose 100

Closing the Mouth 103

The Neck Muscles 106

Refining the Surface 109

Sculpting the Ear 110

Adding Character and Refining Forms 113

Final Adjustments 117

What’s Next? 125

Chapter 4 The Torso 127

Changing the Torso Masses 129

Model Preparation: Storing a Morph Target 129

Adjusting the Chest Mass 130

Sculpting the Torso 132

Pectoralis 132

Abdominal Muscles 136

Serratus and Oblique 139

Muscles of the Back 142

What’s Next 149

Chapter 5 The Arms 151

Basic Forms 152

Muscular and Skeletal Anatomy 153

Skeletal Landmarks Addressed in This Chapter 156

Muscles Addressed in This Chapter 156

Sculpting the Arm 158

Shoulder and Upper Arm 158

Triceps 163

Lower Arm 167

What’s Next? 177

Chapter 6 The Pelvis and Legs 179

Basic Pelvis and Leg Forms 179

Skeletal and Muscular Anatomy 182

Muscles of the Pelvis and Leg Addressed in This Chapter 185

Sculpting the Pelvis and Legs 186

Adjusting the Leg Position 186

Sculpting the Pelvis and Buttocks 190

Sculpting the Upper Leg 192

Sculpting the Knee 200

Sculpting the Lower Leg 204

Sculpting the Finishing Pass 212

What’s Next? 213

Chapter 7 Hands, Feet, and Figure Finish 215

Anatomy of the Hands and Feet 216

Relative Proportions 216

Skeletal Structure 218

Anatomical Direction 220

The Surface Anatomy of the Hand 220

The Surface Anatomy of the Foot 220

Block Forms and Planes 222

Sculpting the Hand 224

Adding Flesh Folds and Details 237

Sculpting the Feet 246

Finishing the Figure 253

Overall Form Changes 253

Adding Flesh and Fat 256

Chapter 8 Remeshing 265

What Is Remeshing? 266

Why Remesh? 267

Introducing the ZBrush Topology Tools 269

Polypainting 270

Using the ZBrush Topology Tools 278

Remeshing the Shoulders 281

Remeshing a Head with NEX 286

Creating the Initial Mesh with NEX 286

Adding the Eye and Mouth Bags 297

What’s Next? 303

Chapter 9 Texturing 305

UV Texture Coordinates 305

Mapping UV Texture Coordinates 308

Editing UVs 313

Importing UVs into the Tool 315

Creating Texture Maps for Skin 317

Creating Textures for Subsurface-Scattering Shaders 318

Mottling the Skin 326

Painting the Epidermal Layer 328

Exporting Textures from ZBrush 331

Surface Noise 332

Activating Surface Noise 332

Converting Bumps to a Normal Map 333

Chapter 10 Creating a Costume 335

A Costume Workflow 336

Creating the Mask 336

Preparing the ZBrush Topology Tools 336

Making a Base Mesh 336

Generating a Hero Mask from the Topology 341

Sculpting the Costume Details 345

Sculpting the Mask 345

Sculpting the Shirt 352

Adding a Repeating Pattern to the Sleeves 355

Sculpting the Pants 358

Storing, Recalling, and Editing Masks as Alphas 369

What’s Next 375

Appendix About the Companion DVD 377

What You’ll Find on the DVD 377

Chapter Files 377

Extra Videos 378

System Requirements 378

Using the DVD 378

Troubleshooting 379

Customer Care 379

Index 380

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Scott Spencer is a freelance character designer and sculptor currently working at the Weta Workshop in Wellington, New Zealand. Scott has worked on titles such as Iron Man, Golden Axe, Species 3, and others. His work can be seen in film, video games, and a variety of collectible figures.
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Gesture_02
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Do you think you've discovered an error in this book? Please check the list of errata below to see if we've already addressed the error. If not, please submit the error via our Errata Form. We will attempt to verify your error; if you're right, we will post a correction below.

ChapterPageDetailsDatePrint Run
DVD DVD Correction to DVD content: misidentified video file
In the Introductory video on the DVD (filename DVD_introduction) a reference is made to a video called "boxman_redo.mov". The actual filename given to that video is "boxman_process.mov" and it can be found in the file boxman_process.zip with the Chapter 2 resources on the DVD.
3/17/10 1st
1 17 Text correction
In step 4 under "Building a Sculpt Mesh in Maya," the third sentence, "Select the top face and extrude up twice, ending at the shorter line between lines 8 and 7." contains an error.

It should read "...ending at the shorter line between 7 and 6."
3/17/10 1st
6 183 Correction to Figure 6.8
The figure is mislabeled. The pointer with the label "Great trochanter" actually points to the Anterior superior iliac crest of the pelvis.

The Great trochanter should have been labeled in the figure also. It is the eminence on the uppermost part of the femur, pointing away from the joint with the pelvis.
3/26/10 1st
5 168 Text correction
In step 2 under "Sculpting the Lower Arm" the third sentence contains an error.
"Sketch in the division between the Trapezius, Brachialis, and these two muscles." should read:
"Sketch in the division between the Triceps, Brachialis, and these two muscles."
3/26/10 1st
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