Designing Matrix Organizations that Actually Work: How IBM, Proctor & Gamble and Others Design for Success
December 2008, Jossey-Bass
Introduction: Matrix Organizations: What Are They? Where Did They Come From?
What Is a Matrix?
What Are the Origins of the Matrix?
The Star Model.
Implications of the Star Model.
PART ONE: SIMPLE MATRIX ORGANIZATIONS.
1. Simple Matrix Structures.
Pharmaceutical R&D Lab Example.
2. The Two-Hat Model.
What Is the Two-Hat Model?
Examples of Two-Hat Structures.
3. The Baton Pass Model.
The Consumer Goods Model.
The Pharmaceutical Model.
4. The Matrix Within a Matrix.
Design Challenges of the Matrix Within a Matrix.
Matrix Within a Matrix at the Corporate Level.
Mars Pet Food Example.
5. Balancing Power and Defining Roles.
Designing Power Bases.
Roles and Responsibilities.
PART TWO: COMPLEX MATRIX STRUCTURES.
6. The Three-Dimensional Matrix.
The Geography-Dominant Matrix.
The Balanced Matrix.
The Business-Dominant Matrix.
Other Three-Dimensional Models.
7. More Complex Matrix Structures.
Global Account Teams.
The Front-Back Hybrid Model.
8. The IBM Structure.
The IBM Front-Back Hybrid.
PART THREE: COMPLETING THE STAR MODEL.
9. Communication in the Matrix.
10. Planning and Coordination Processes.
Goal Alignment, Dispute Resolution, and Coordination Mechanisms.
11. Planning Processes in the Complex Matrix.
What About Complex Matrix Designs?
Get the System in a Room.
12. Human Resources Policies.
13. Leadership in a Matrix Organization.
Seeing That Conflicts Are Resolved.
Managing the Top Team.
14. Implementing a Matrix.
Using the Star Model.
15. A Synopsis of Matrix Capabilities.
Epilogue: Personal Stories: The Use and Abuse of the Matrix.
Early Phase: "What Is a Matrix, Anyway"?
Matrix Takes Off and Becomes Trendy.
The Phase of Decline.
The Stealth Matrix Phase.
Today: Matrix out of the Closet.
About the Author.
Jay R. Galbraith is professor emeritus at the International Institute for Management Development (IMD) in Lausanne, Switzerland. He is also senior research scientist at the Center for Effective Organizations at the University of Southern California. He is the author or coauthor of several books, including Designing the Global Corporation and Designing Your Organization, both from Jossey-Bass.