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Public Health Genomics: The Essentials

ISBN: 978-0-470-45441-1
300 pages
November 2008, Jossey-Bass
Public Health Genomics: The Essentials (0470454415) cover image
The Centers for Disease Control (CDC) has recognized genomics as a priority area in public health education. To help public health students and professionals achieve proficiency in the language of genetics and attain genomics competencies delineated by the CDC, this book offers an introduction to basic molecular genetics and discusses the relevance of genomics to such key public health issues as environmental health, ethnic health disparities, health policy and law, research ethics, maternal and child health, clinical preventive medicine, health behavior, health economics, and communicable disease control. Presented in a context that is easy to understand, the book serves as an accessible portal of entry into the world of public health genomics.
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Tables and Figures.

Foreword.

Preface.

The Authors.

Introduction.

PART ONE: SCIENTIFIC AND SOCIAL PERSPECTIVES ON GENOMICS.

CHAPTER ONE: PAST, PRESENT, AND FUTURE OF PUBLIC HEALTH GENOMICS.

History of Human Genetics.

History of Public Health Genetics.

Impact of Genetics on Primary, Secondary, and Tertiary Prevention.

Phenotypic versus Genotypic Prevention.

Genomics Today.

Genomics Tomorrow.

CHAPTER TWO: GENOMICS AND GOVERNMENT.

The NIH and the NHGRI.

The NOPHG.

The SACGHS.

State Government Programs.

Genomics and Bioterrorism Preparedness.

CHAPTER THREE: BASIC MOLECULAR GENETICS.

Hereditary Material.

DNA Replication.

Transcription and Translation.

Gene Expression.

Mutations and Polymorphisms.

CHAPTER FOUR: MUTATIONS, POPULATION GENETICS, AND ETHNICITY.

Somatic versus Germline Mutations.

Types of Mutations.

Causes of Mutations.

Population Genetics.

Race, Ethnicity, and Genomics.

CHAPTER FIVE: INHERITANCE PATTERNS AND FAMILY HISTORY.

Gregor Mendel and His Pea Plants.

Autosomes and Sex Chromosomes.

Drawing a Pedigree.

Non-Mendelian Inheritance Patterns.

Inheritance Patterns, Family History, and Public Health.

CHAPTER SIX: GENETIC EPIDEMIOLOGY AND GENE-ENVIRONMENT INTERACTIONS.

Review of Basic Concepts.

Polygenic and Multifactorial Traits.

Determining the Risk of Multifactorial Disorders.

Determining Genetic versus Environmental Effects.

Determining Patterns of Inheritance and Localizing Genes.

Gene-Environment Interactions and Molecular Epidemiology.

CHAPTER SEVEN: GENETIC INFORMATION, ETHICS, AND THE LAW.

Examples of Genetic Discrimination and Breach of Privacy.

Evolution of Privacy and Antidiscrimination Laws.

Genetics Research and Concern for Privacy.

Clinical Genetic Testing and the Duty to Inform.

PART TWO: GENOMICS IN MATERNAL, CHILD, AND ADULT HEALTH.

CHAPTER EIGHT: TOXICOLOGY, TERATOLOGY, AND PRENATAL DIAGNOSIS.

Birth Defects and Embryology.

Chromosomes.

Prenatal Diagnosis.

Preimplantation Genetic Diagnosis.

CHAPTER NINE: PRECONCEPTIONAL GENETIC SCREENING AND CULTURAL COMPETENCE.

Genetic Diseases Common among People of Ashkenazic Jewish Descent.

Genetic Diseases Common among People of Sephardic and Mizrahi Jewish Descent.

Reproductive Options for Carriers.

Limitations of Ethnically Based Genetic Screening.

CHAPTER TEN: METABOLIC DISORDERS AND NEWBORN SCREENING.

Newborn Screening’s Relevance to Public Health.

Biology of Metabolic Disorders.

Newborn Screening in California.

MS/MS-Detectable Disorders.

CHAPTER ELEVEN: PEDIATRIC GENETICS AND HEALTH SUPERVISION.

American Academy of Pediatrics.

Achondroplasia.

Down Syndrome.

Fragile X Syndrome.

Marfan Syndrome.

Prader-Willi Syndrome.

Autism.

CHAPTER TWELVE: ADULT GENETICS, GENETIC COUNSELING, AND HEALTH BEHAVIOR.

Alzheimer’s Disease.

Cardiovascular Disease.

Cancer.

Familial Cancer Syndromes.

Genetic Testing, Risk Perception, and Health Behavior.

PART THREE: AREAS OF GENERAL INTEREST.

CHAPTER THIRTEEN: HEALTH ECONOMICS, HEALTH DISPARITIES, AND GENETIC SERVICES.

Basics of Health Economics.

Health Economics of Genetic Screening.

Health Care Disparities.

CHAPTER FOURTEEN: GENOMICS AND COMMUNICABLE DISEASE CONTROL.

Bacteria.

Viruses.

Genomics of a Pandemic.

CHAPTER FIFTEEN: HOT TOPICS IN GENOMICS.

Personalized Medicine.

Gene Therapy.

Stem Cell Research.

CHAPTER SIXTEEN: BIOINFORMATICS AND GENOMICS ONLINE.

Clinical and Community Resources.

Ethical, Legal, and Social Issues.

Genetic Epidemiology.

Government Agencies.

Maternal and Child Health.

Professional Genetics Education.

Professional Genetics Societies.

Professional Public Health Societies.

Research Resources.

Appendix 1: Answers to Selected Discussion Questions.

Glossary.

References.

Name Index.

Subject Index.

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Claudia N. Mikail, MD, MPH, is a clinical assistant professor at the University of Massachusetts at Amherst, School of Public Health and Health Sciences and a clinical instructor at the Keck School of Medicine.
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"This book is beautifully written for health professionals and students in the fields of public health, medicine, and genetics. Because of Dr. Mikail's ability to explain complex concepts clearly, it also effectively educates the community-at-large about core principles in genomics, increasing awareness in patients, families, and nonprofessionals alike."
?Samuel Rahbar, MD, PhD, professor, Department of Diabetes and Endocrinology, City of Hope National Medical Center
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