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Handbook of Oil Spill Science and Technology

Merv Fingas (Editor)
ISBN: 978-0-470-45551-7
728 pages
February 2015
Handbook of Oil Spill Science and Technology (0470455519) cover image

Description

Provides a scientific basis for the cleanup and for the assessment of oil spills

  • Enables Non-scientific officers to understand the science they use on a daily basis
  • Multi-disciplinary approach covering fields as diverse as biology, microbiology, chemistry, physics, oceanography and toxicology
  • Covers the science of oil spills from risk analysis to cleanup and through the effects on the environment
  • Includes case studies examining and analyzing spills, such as Tasman Spirit oil spill on the Karachi Coast, and provides lessons to prevent these in the future
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Table of Contents

Contributors xvii

Author Biographies xix

Preface xxvii

PART I Risk Analysis 1

1 Risk Analysis and Prevention 3
Dagmar Schmidt Etkin

1.1 Introduction 3

1.2 Executive Summary 3

1.3 Oil Spill Risk Analysis 4

1.4 Overview of Oil Spill Prevention 28

References 34

PART II Oil Properties 37

2 Oil Physical Properties: Measurement and Correlation 39
Bruce P. Hollebone

2.1 Introduction 39

2.2 Bulk Properties of Crude Oil and Fuel Products 39

2.3 Hydrocarbon Groups 44

2.4 Quality Assurance and Control 46

2.5 Effects of Evaporative Weathering on Oil Bulk Properties 46

References 49

PART III Oil Composition and Properties 51

3 Introduction to Oil Chemistry and Properties 53
Merv Fingas

3.1 Introduction 53

3.2 The Composition of Oil 53

3.3 Properties of Oil 75

References 76

4 Vegetable Oil Spills: Oil Properties and Behavior 79
Merv Fingas

4.1 Introduction 79

4.2 The Oils 79

4.3 Historical Spills 79

4.4 Aquatic Toxicity 86

4.5 Properties of the Oils 86

4.6 Behavior in the Environment 87

4.7 Oxidation Biodegradation and Polymerization 87

4.8 Spill Countermeasures 88

4.9 Biofuels 88

4.10 Conclusions 89

References 89

PART IV Oil Analysis 93

5 Chromatographic Fingerprinting Analysis of Crude Oils and Petroleum Products 95
Chun Yang, Zhendi Wang, Bruce P. Hollebone ,Carl E. Brown, Zeyu Yang, and Mike Landriault

5.1 Introduction 95

5.2 Introduction to Oil Analysis Techniques 100

5.3 Methodology of Oil Fingerprinting Analysis 105

5.4 Weathering Effect on Oil Chemical Composition 141

5.5 Diagnostic Ratios of Target Hydrocarbons 148

5.6 Forensic Oil Spill Identification: A Case Study 151

References 158

6 Oil Spill Identification 165
Joan Albaigés, Paul G.M. Kienhuis, and Gerhard Dahlmann

6.1 Introduction 165

6.2 Sampling 167

6.3 Sample Handling in the Laboratory 170

6.4 Analysis 171

6.5 Conclusions 198

References 202

PART V Oil Behavior 205

7 Oil and Petroleum Evaporation 207
Merv Fingas

7.1 Introduction 207

7.2 Review of Historical Concepts 209

7.3 Development of New Diffusion-Regulated Models 213

7.4 Complexities to the Diffusion-Regulated Model 218

7.5 Use of Evaporation Equations in Spill Models 220

7.6 Volatilization 221

7.7 Measurement of Evaporation 221

7.8 Summary 221

References 222

8 Water-in-Oil Emulsions: Formation and Prediction 225
Merv Fingas and Ben Fieldhouse

8.1 Introduction 225

8.2 Types of Emulsions 225

8.3 Stability Indices 226

8.4 Formation of Emulsions 230

8.5 Modeling the Formation of Water-in-Oil Emulsions 235

8.6 Conclusions 251

References 268

9 Oil Behavior in Ice-Infested Waters 271
Merv Fingas and Bruce P. Hollebone

9.1 Introduction 271

9.2 Spreading on Ice 271

9.3 Spreading on or in Snow 273

9.4 Spreading under Ice 273

9.5 Spreading on Water with Ice Present 274

9.6 The Effect of Gas on Oil-under-Ice Spreading 275

9.7 Movement through Ice 276

9.8 Oil in Leads 277

9.9 Absorption to Snow and Ice 280

9.10 Containment on Ice 280

9.11 Heating Effect of Oil on the Surface of Ice 280

9.12 Oil under Multiyear Ice 280

9.13 Oil in Pack Ice 281

9.14 Growth of Ice on Shorelines and Effect on Oil Retention 281

9.15 Effect of Oil on Ice Properties 281

9.16 Concluding Remarks 283

References 283

PART VI Modeling 285

10 Introduction to Spill Modeling 287
Merv Fingas

10.1 Introduction 287

10.2 An Overview of Weathering 287

10.3 Evaporation 288

10.4 Water Uptake and Emulsification 290

10.5 Natural Dispersion 293

10.6 Summary of Natural Dispersion 295

10.7 Other Processes 295

10.8 Movement of Oil and Oil Spill Modeling 297

10.9 Spill Modeling 299

References 299

11 Oceanographic and Meteorological Effects on Spilled Oil 301
C.J. Beegle-Krause and William J. Lehr

List of Symbols 301

11.1 Introduction 301

11.2 Chapter Scope 302

11.3 Atmospheric Boundary Layer 302

11.4 Water Currents 303

11.5 Waves 304

11.6 Sea Spray 306

11.7 Langmuir Cells 306

11.8 Oil Transport 307

11.9 Areas of Active Research 308

References 309

PART VII Detection Tracking and Remote Sensing 311

12 Oil Spill Remote Sensing 313
Merv Fingas and Carl E. Brown

12.1 Introduction 313

12.2 Atmospheric Properties 314

12.3 Oil Interaction with Light and Electronic Waves 314

12.4 Visible Indications of Oil 316

12.5 Optical Sensors 317

12.6 Laser Fluorosensors 325

12.7 Microwave Sensors 326

12.8 Slick Thickness Determination 331

12.9 Integrated Airborne Sensor Systems 333

12.10 Satellite Remote Sensing 334

12.11 Oil-Under-Ice Detection 340

12.12 Underwater Detection and Tracking 340

12.13 Small Remote-Controlled Aircraft 344

12.14 Real-Time Displays and Printers 345

12.15 Routine Surveillance 345

12.16 Future Trends 346

12.17 Recommendations 347

References 348

13 Detection Tracking and Remote Sensing: Satellites and Image Processing (Spaceborne Oil Spill Detection) 357
Konstantinos Topouzelis, Dario Tarchi, Michele Vespe, Monica Posada, Oliver Muellenhoff and Guido Ferraro

13.1 Introduction 357

13.2 Oil Spills Detection by Satellite 358

13.3 From Research to Operational Services 366

13.4 Ancillary Data 375

13.5 Summary and Conclusions 378

References 381

14 Detection of Oil in with and under Ice and Snow 385
Merv Fingas and Carl E. Brown

14.1 Introduction 385

14.2 Overview of Detection of Oil in or under Ice and Snow 385

14.3 Detection of Surface Oil with Ice: Conventional Techniques 392

14.4 Conclusions 392

References 392

PART VIII Oil Spills on Land 395

15 Bioremediation of Oil Spills on Land 397
Lisa D. Brown and Ania C. Ulrich

15.1 Introduction 397

15.2 Brief Overview of Bioremediation Techniques for Land Oil Spills 397

15.3 Key Organisms Involved in Biodegradation of Oil Spills on Land 398

15.4 Environmental Factors Affecting Bioremediation 399

15.5 In Situ Bioremediation Strategies 400

15.6 Ex Situ Land Treatment Techniques 402

15.7 Bioaugmentation Strategies 404

15.8 Biostimulation Strategies 404

References 405

16 Microbe-Assisted Phytoremediation of Petroleum Impacted Soil: A Scientifically Proven Green Technology 407
Karen E. Gerhardt, Perry D. Gerwing, Xiao-Dong Huang and Bruce M. Greenberg

16.1 Introduction 407

16.2 PGPR-Enhanced Phytoremediation System(s) 413

16.3 Case Studies of Full-Scale Petroleum Phytoremediation 416

16.4 Achieving Regulatory Criteria 421

16.5 Conclusions 422

References 423

PART IX Effects of Oil 429

17 Overview of Efforts to Document and Reduce Impacts of Oil Spills on Seabirds 431
Roger C. Helm, Harry R. Carter, R. Glenn Ford, D. Michael Fry, Rocío L. Moreno, Carolina Sanpera and Florina S. Tseng

17.1 Introduction 431

17.2 Vulnerability 433

17.3 Effect of Oiling on Individual Birds 435

17.4 Rehabilitation and Veterinary Care 436

17.5 Estimating Mortality 441

17.6 Long-Term Impacts 444

17.7 Restoration 446

References 448

18 Overview of Effects of Oil Spills on Marine Mammals 455
Roger C. Helm, Daniel P. Costa, Terry D. DeBruyn, Thomas J. O’Shea, Randall S. Wells and Terrie M. Williams

18.1 Introduction 455

18.2 Sea Otters 458

18.3 Seals and Sea Lions 461

18.4 Sea Cows 464

18.5 Polar Bears 465

18.6 Whales Dolphins and Porpoises 467

References 471

19 Oil Spill Impact and Recovery of Coastal Marsh Vegetation 477
Qianxin Lin

19.1 Introduction 477

19.2 Toxicity and Impact as a Function of Oil Type and Oil Weathering Degree 477

19.3 Sensitivity to Oil Varies by Plant Species 478

19.4 Effects of Oil Exposure Modes on Severity of Oil Impacts 479

19.5 Effects of Oil Spill Cleanup Procedures on Marsh Recovery 481

References 483

PART X Natural Dispersion 485

20 A Review of Natural Dispersion Models 487
Merv Fingas

20.1 Introduction 487

20.2 The Mackay Approach 487

20.3 The Audunson Approach 489

20.4 The Delvigne Approach 490

20.5 Residence in the Water Column 492

20.6 Comparison of the Models 492

20.7 Conclusions 494

References 494

PART XI Cold Region Spills 495

21 Arctic and Antarctic Spills 497
D.M. Filler, Mahlon C. Kennicutt II, I. Snape, Stephen T. Sweet and Andrew G. Klein

21.1 Introduction 497

21.2 Terrestrial Spills 502

21.3 Marine Spills 507

21.4 Policy 508

References 510

PART XII Case Studies 513

22 The Prestige Oil Spill 515
Joan Albaigés ,Ana Bernabeu, Sonia Castanedo, Núria Jiménez, Carmen Morales-Caselles, Araceli Puente and Lucía Viñas

22.1 Introduction 515

22.2 The Ocean and Coastal Dynamics in the NW Iberia and their Influence on the Spill 516

22.3 Oil Monitoring and Fate 521

22.4 The Assessment of Effects 531

22.5 Environmental Restoration 537

22.6 Conclusion 541

References 542

23 The Grounding of the Bahía Paraíso Arthur Harbor Antarctica: Distribution and Fate of Oil Spill Related Hydrocarbons 547
Stephen T. Sweet, Mahlon C. Kennicutt II and Andrew G. Klein

23.1 Introduction and Background 547

23.2 Environmental Sampling 550

23.3 Conclusions 555

References 555

24 Tasman Spirit Oil Spill at Karachi Coast Pakistan 557
Hina Ahsan Siddiqi and Alia Bano Munshi

24.1 Introduction 557

24.2 Immediate Response to the Impact: Actions and Remediation 55724.2.1 Oil Recovery and Coast Cleaning 558

24.3 The DDWP Project by Ministry of Science and Technology (MoST) 561

24.4 Hydrodynamics and Meteorological Data 562

24.5 Oil Monitoring and Fate 564

24.6 Effects of Oil Impact at the Community Level 568

24.7 Bioremediation/Natural Attenuation Processes 572

24.8 Conclusions 572

References 573

PART XIII Appendices 575

Appendix A The Oil Properties Data Appendix 577
Bruce P. Hollebone

Appendix B Conversions 683
Merv Fingas

Appendix C Ice Nomenclature 685
Merv Fingas

Index 689

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Author Information

Merv Fingas has 40 years of experience in oil and chemical spill research. He has authored over 850 technical publications and papers including books, manuals and over 500 peer-reviewed papers. He has won over 20 awards for research and papers from the United States Government, Canadian Government and international conferences. Dr.  Fingas has also collaborated on studies with over 25 organizations around the world, coordinated studies for over 30 years through 6 internationally-attended committees and developed co-operative projects with many international groups.

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