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Survey Methodology, 2nd Edition

Survey Methodology, 2nd Edition (0470465468) cover image
Praise for the First Edition:

"The book makes a valuable contribution by synthesizing current research and identifying areas for future investigation for each aspect of the survey process."
Journal of the American Statistical Association

"Overall, the high quality of the text material is matched by the quality of writing . . ."
Public Opinion Quarterly

". . . it should find an audience everywhere surveys are being conducted."
Technometrics

This new edition of Survey Methodology continues to provide a state-of-the-science presentation of essential survey methodology topics and techniques. The volume's six world-renowned authors have updated this Second Edition to present newly emerging approaches to survey research and provide more comprehensive coverage of the major considerations in designing and conducting a sample survey.

Key topics in survey methodology are clearly explained in the book's chapters, with coverage including sampling frame evaluation, sample design, development of questionnaires, evaluation of questions, alternative modes of data collection, interviewing, nonresponse, post-collection processing of survey data, and practices for maintaining scientific integrity. Acknowledging the growing advances in research and technology, the Second Edition features:

  • Updated explanations of sampling frame issues for mobile telephone and web surveys
  • New scientific insight on the relationship between nonresponse rates and nonresponse errors

  • Restructured discussion of ethical issues in survey research, emphasizing the growing research results on privacy, informed consent, and confidentiality issues

  • The latest research findings on effective questionnaire development techniques

  • The addition of 50% more exercises at the end of each chapter, illustrating basic principles of survey design

  • An expanded FAQ chapter that addresses the concerns that accompany newly established methods

Providing valuable and informative perspectives on the most modern methods in the field, Survey Methodology, Second Edition is an ideal book for survey research courses at the upper-undergraduate and graduate levels. It is also an indispensable reference for practicing survey methodologists and any professional who employs survey research methods.

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PREFACE TO THE FIRST EDITION xv

PREFACE TO THE SECOND EDITION xix

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS xxi

CHAPTER 1. AN INTRODUCTION TO SURVEY METHODOLOGY

1.1 Introduction 2

1.2 A Brief History of Survey Research 3

1.3 Some Examples of Ongoing Surveys 7

1.4 What is Survey Methodology? 30

1.5 The Challenge of Survey Methodology 32

1.6 About this Book 34

CHAPTER 2. INFERENCE AND ERROR IN SURVEYS

2.1 Introduction 39

2.2 The Lifecycle of a Survey From a Design Perspective 41

2.3 The Lifecycle of a Survey from A Quality Perspective 49

2.4 Putting It All Together 60

2.5 Error Notions in Different Kinds of Statistics 61

2.6 Nonstatistical Notions of Survey Quality 62

2.7 Summary 63

CHAPTER 3. TARGET POPULATIONS, SAMPLING FRAMES, AND COVERAGE ERROR

3.1 Introduction 69

3.2 Populations and Frames 69

3.3 Coverage Properties of Sampling Frames 72

3.4 Alternative Frames for the Target Population of Households or Persons 81

3.5 Frame Issues for Other Common Target Populations 84

3.6 Coverage Error 87

3.7 Reducing Undercoverage 88

3.8 Summary 94

CHAPTER 4. SAMPLE DESIGN AND SAMPLING ERROR

4.1 Introduction 97

4.2 Samples and Estimates 99

4.3 Simple Random Sampling 103

4.4 Cluster Sampling 106

4.5 Stratification and Stratified Sampling 113

4.6 Systematic Selection 123

4.7 Complications in Practice 125

4.8 Sampling US Telephone Households 133

4.9 Selecting Persons Within Households 136

4.10 Summary 138

CHAPTER 5. METHODS OF DATA COLLECTION

5.1 Alternative Methods of Data Collection 150

5.2 Choosing the Appropriate Method 159

5.3 Effects of Different Data Collection Methods on Survey Errors 160

5.4 Using Multiple Modes of Data Collection 175

5.5 Summary 177

CHAPTER 6. NONRESPONSE IN SAMPLE SURVEYS

6.1 Introduction 183

6.2 Response Rates 183

6.3 Impact of Nonresponse on the Quality of Survey Estimates 189

6.4 Thinking Causally About Survey Nonresponse Error 191

6.5 Dissecting the Nonresponse Phenomenon 192

6.6 Design Features to Reduce Unit Nonresponse 201

6.7 Item Nonresponse 208

6.8 Are Nonresponse Propensities Related to Other Error Sources? 210

6.9 Summary 210

CHAPTER 7. QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS IN SURVEYS

7.1 Alternatives Methods of Survey Measurement 217

7.2 Cognitive Processes in Answering Questions 218

7.3 Problems in Answering Survey Questions 225

7.4 Guidelines for Writing Good Questions 242

7.5 Summary 252

CHAPTER 8. EVALUATING SURVEY QUESTIONS

8.1 Introduction 259

8.2 Expert Reviews 260

8.3 Focus Groups 261

8.4 Cognitive Interviews 263

8.5 Field Pretests and Behavior Coding 265

8.6 Randomized or Split-Ballot Experiments 267

8.7 Applying Question Standards 268

8.8 Summary of Question Evaluation Tools 269

8.9 Linking Concepts of Measurement Quality to Statistical Estimates 274

8.10 Summary 286

CHAPTER 9. SURVEY INTERVIEWING

9.1 The Role of the Interviewer 291

9.2 Interviewer Bias 292

9.3 Interviewer Variance 295

9.4 Strategies for Reducing Interviewer Bias 300

9.5 Strategies for Reducing Interviewer-Related Variance 302

9.6 The Controversy About Standardized Interviewing 312

9.7 Interviewer Management 315

9.8 Validating the Work of Interviewers 319

9.9 The Use of Recorded Voices (and Faces) in Data Collection 322

9.10 Summary 323

CHAPTER 10. POSTCOLLECTION PROCESSING OF SURVEY DATA

10.1 Introduction 329

10.2 Coding 331

10.3 Entering Numeric Data into Files 344

10.4 Editing 345

10.5 Weighting 347

10.6 Imputation for Item-missing data 354

10.7 Sampling Variance Estimation for Complex Samples 359

10.8 Survey Data Documentation and Metadata 363

10.9 Summary 365

CHAPTER 11. PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICES RELATED TO ETHICAL RESEARCH

11.1 Introduction 371

11.2 Standards for the Conduct of Research 371

11.3 Standards for Dealing with Clients 374

11.4 Standards for Dealing with the Public 375

11.5 Standards for Dealing with Respondents 376

11.6 Emerging Ethical Issues 384

11.7 Research About Ethical Issues in Surveys 384

11.8 Administrative and Technical Procedures for Safe-Guarding Confidentiality 392

11.9 Summary and Conclusions 398

Keywords

For More In-Depth Reading

Exercises

CHAPTER 12. FAQS ABOUT SURVEY METHODOLOGY

12.1 Introduction 405

12.2 The Questions and Their Answers 405

REFERENCES 421

INDEX 451

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ROBERT M. GROVES , PhD, is Professor and Director of the University of Michigan Survey Research Center and Research Professor at the Joint Program in Survey Methodology at the University of Maryland.

FLOYD J. FOWLER, PhD, is Senior Research Fellow in the Center for Survey Research at the University of Massachusetts Boston.

MICK P. COUPER, PhD, is Research Professor at both the University of Michigan Survey Research Center and the Joint Program in Survey Methodology at the University of Maryland.

JAMES M. LEPKOWSKI, PhD, is Research Professor at the University of Michigan Survey Research Center, where he is also Associate Professor in the Department of Biostatistics and Director of the Joint Program in Survey Methodology.

ELEANOR SINGER, PhD, is Research Professor Emerita at the University of Michigan Survey Research Center.

ROGER TOURANGEAU, PhD, is Research Professor at both the University of Michigan Survey Research Center and the Joint Program in Survey Methodology at the University of Maryland.

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  • The total number of exercises in the Second Edition has doubled, providing the reader with even more opportunity to test their comprehension of the presented material.
  • The use of mobile phones is now intertwined in the book's discussions on data collection, sampling frames, and survey error.
  • The chapter on nonrepsonse in sample surveys has been completely rewritten to reflect the latest research on the topic.
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  • This new edition serves as a timely update on survey research, reflecting the growing use of technology in the field of survey methods.
  • The authors acknowledge the growing use of the web for collecting data, with expanded treatment of internet surveys across two chapters.
  • An expanded FAQ chapter addresses the concerns that accompany the newly-established methods and research variables.
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