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Advanced Structural Ceramics

ISBN: 978-0-470-49711-1
512 pages
October 2011
Advanced Structural Ceramics (0470497114) cover image
This book covers the area of advanced ceramic composites broadly, providing important introductory chapters to fundamentals, processing, and applications of advanced ceramic composites. Within each section, specific topics covered highlight the state of the art research within one of the above sections. The organization of the book is designed to provide easy understanding by students as well as professionals interested in advanced ceramic composites. The various sections discuss fundamentals of nature and characteristics of ceramics, processing of ceramics, processing and properties of toughened ceramics, high temperature ceramics, nanoceramics and nanoceramic composites, and bioceramics and biocomposites.
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Preface xvii

Foreword by Michel Barsoum xxiii

About the Authors xxv

Section One Fundamentals of Nature and Characteristics of Ceramics

1. Ceramics: Definition and Characteristics 3

1.1 Materials Classification 3

1.2 Historical Perspective; Definition and Classification of Ceramics 4

1.3 Properties of Structural Ceramics 8

1.4 Applications of Structural Ceramics 9

References 12

2. Bonding, Structure, and Physical Properties 14

2.1 Primary Bonding 15

2.1.1 Ionic Bonding 15

2.1.2 Covalent Bonding 18

2.1.3 Pauling’s Rules 19

2.1.4 Secondary Bonding 21

2.2 Structure 21

2.2.1 NaCl-type Rock-Salt Structure 22

2.2.2 ZnS-Type Wurtzite Structure 22

2.2.3 ZnS-Type Zinc Blende Structure 23

2.2.4 CsCl Cesium Chloride Structure 23

2.2.5 CaF2 Fluorite Structure 23

2.2.6 Antifluorite Structure 24

2.2.7 Rutile Structure 24

2.2.8 Al2O3 Corundum Structure 24

2.2.9 Spinel Structure 25

2.2.10 Perovskite Structure 26

2.2.11 Ilmenite Structure 26

2.2.12 Silicate Structures 26

2.3 Oxide Ceramics 28

2.4 Non-Oxide Ceramics 30

References 33

3. Mechanical Behavior of Ceramics 34

3.1 Theory of Brittle Fracture 34

3.1.1 Theoretical Cohesive Strength 34

3.1.2 Inglis Theory 35

3.1.3 Griffith’s Theory 37

3.1.4 Irwin’s Theory 39

3.1.5 Concept of Fracture Toughness 39

3.2 Cracking in Brittle Materials 40

3.3 Strength Variability of Ceramics 42

3.4 Physics of the Fracture of Brittle Solids 42

3.4.1 Weakest Link Fracture Statistics 44

3.5 Basic Mechanical Properties 48

3.5.1 Vickers Hardness 48

3.5.2 Instrumented Indentation Measurements 48

3.5.3 Compressive Strength 50

3.5.4 Flexural Strength 51

3.5.5 Elastic Modulus 52

3.5.6 Fracture Toughness 53

3.5.6.1 Long Crack Methods 54

3.5.6.2 Fracture Toughness Evaluation Using Indentation Cracking 55

3.6 Toughening Mechanisms 59

References 63

Section Two Processing of Ceramics

4. Synthesis of High-Purity Ceramic Powders 67

4.1 Synthesis of ZrO2 Powders 67

4.2 Synthesis of TiB2 Powders 68

4.3 Synthesis of Hydroxyapatite Powders 70

4.4 Synthesis of High-Purity Tungsten Carbide Powders 71

References 75

5. Sintering of Ceramics 76

5.1 Introduction 76

5.2 Classification 78

5.3 Thermodynamic Driving Force 79

5.4 Solid-State Sintering 82

5.5 Competition between Densification and Grain Growth 84

5.6 Liquid-Phase Sintering 88

5.7 Important Factors Infl uencing the Sintering Process 90

5.8 Powder Metallurgical Processes 92

5.8.1 Ball Milling 92

5.8.2 Compaction 94

5.8.2.1 Cold Pressing 94

5.8.2.2 Cold Isostatic Pressing 96

5.8.3 Pressureless Sintering 97

5.8.4 Reactive Sintering 98

5.8.5 Microwave Sintering 99

References 103

6. Thermomechanical Sintering Methods 105

6.1 Hot Pressing 105

6.2 Extrusion 108

6.3 Hot Isostatic Pressing 110

6.4 Hot Rolling 112

6.5 Sinter Forging 114

6.6 Spark Plasma Sintering 116

References 118

Section Three Surface Coatings

7. Environment and Engineering of Ceramic Materials 123

7.1 Environmental Influence on Properties of Engineering Ceramics 124

7.1.1 Oxidation Resistance 125

7.1.2 Corrosion Resistance 126

7.1.3 Creep Resistance 126

7.1.4 Hard Bearing Surfaces 126

7.1.5 Thermal and Electrical Insulation 126

7.1.6 Abrasion-Resistant Ceramics 127

7.1.7 Fretting Wear Resistance, Surface Fatigue, Impact Resistance 127

7.1.8 Erosion and Cavitation Resistance 127

7.2 Classification and Engineering of Ceramic Materials 128

7.2.1 Non-Oxide Ceramics 128

7.2.2 Oxide Ceramics 132

References 135

8. Thermal Spraying of Ceramics 137

8.1 Mechanism of Thermal Spraying 137

8.1.1 Advantages of Thermal Spraying 140

8.1.2 Disadvantages of Thermal Spraying 141

8.2 Classification of Thermal Spraying 141

8.2.1 Combustion Thermal Spraying 142

8.2.1.1 Flame (Powder or Wire) Spraying 142

8.2.1.2 High-Velocity Oxy-Fuel Spraying 144

8.2.1.3 Detonation Spray Technique 145

8.2.2 Electric Arc Spraying 148

8.2.3 Cold Spraying 149

8.2.4 Plasma Spraying 150

8.2.4.1 Atmospheric Plasma Spraying 152

8.2.4.2 Vacuum Plasma Spraying 154

8.3 Splat Formation and Spread 154

8.4 Near Net Shape Forming 156

8.5 Overview 157

References 158

9. Coatings and Protection of Structural Ceramics 160

9.1 Coatings 160

9.2 Protective Coatings 162

9.2.1 Biological Applications 162

9.3 Rocket Nozzle Inserts 163

9.4 Thermal Barrier Coatings 165

9.5 Wear Resistance 166

9.6 Corrosion Protection by Ceramics 168

9.7 Optically Transparent Ceramics 169

9.8 Ceramic Pottery and Sculptures 169

References 170

Section Four Processing and Properties of Toughened Ceramics

10. Toughness Optimization in Zirconia-Based Ceramics 175

10.1 Introduction 175

10.2 Transformation Characteristics of Tetragonal Zirconia 176

10.3 Phase Equilibria and Microstructure 177

10.4 Transformation Toughening 178

10.4.1 Thermodynamics of Transformation 179

10.4.2 Micromechanical Modeling 180

10.5 Stabilization of Tetragonal Zirconia 182

10.6 Production and Properties of Y-TZP Ceramics 183

10.7 Different Factors Infl uencing Transformation Toughening 184

10.7.1 Grain Size 187

10.7.2 Grain Shape and Grain Boundary Phase 188

10.7.3 Yttria Content 192

10.7.4 Yttria Distribution 193

10.7.5 MS Temperature 197

10.7.6 Transformation Zone Size and Shape 197

10.7.7 Residual Stress 199

10.8 Additional Toughening Mechanisms 199

10.8.1 Stress-Induced Microcracking 200

10.8.2 Ferroelastic Toughening 201

10.9 Coupled Toughening Response 203

10.10 Toughness Optimization in Y-TZP-Based Composites 203

10.10.1 Influence of Thermal Residual Stresses 206

10.10.2 Influence of Zirconia Matrix Stabilization 207

10.11 Outlook 208

References 208

11. S-Phase SiAlON Ceramics: Microstructure and Properties 215

11.1 Introduction 215

11.2 Materials Processing and Property Measurements 216

11.3 Microstructural Development 217

11.4 Mechanical Properties 220

11.4.1 Load-Dependent Hardness Properties 226

11.4.2 R-Curve Behavior 228

11.5 Concluding Remarks 230

References 232

12. Toughness and Tribological Properties of MAX Phases 234

12.1 Emergence of MAX Phases 234

12.2 Classification of MAX Phases 235

12.3 Damage Tolerance of MAX Phases 238

12.4 Wear of Ti3SiC2 MAX Phase 244

12.5 Concluding Remarks 254

References 254

Section Five High-Temperature Ceramics

13. Overview: High-Temperature Ceramics 259

13.1 Introduction 259

13.2 Phase Diagram and Crystal Structure 260

13.3 Processing, Microstructure, and Properties of Bulk TiB2 261

13.3.1 Preparation of TiB2 Powder 261

13.3.2 Densification and Microstructure of Binderless TiB2 265

13.4 Use of Metallic Sinter-Additives on Densification and Properties 269

13.5 Influence of Nonmetallic Additives on Densification and Properties 271

13.6 Important Applications of Bulk TiB2-Based Materials 281

13.7 Concluding Remarks 281

References 283

14. Processing and Properties of TiB2 and ZrB2 with Sinter-Additives 286

14.1 Introduction 286

14.2 Materials Processing 287

14.3 TiB2–MoSi2 System 288

14.3.1 Densification, Microstructure, and Sintering Reactions 288

14.3.2 Mechanical Properties 288

14.3.3 Depth Sensing Instrumented Indentation Response 290

14.3.4 Residual Strain-Induced Property Degradation 293

14.3.5 Relationship between Indentation Work Done and Phase Assemblage 295

14.4 TiB2–TiSi2 System 296

14.4.1 Sintering Reactions and Densifi cation Mechanisms 296

14.4.2 Mechanical Properties 298

14.4.3 Residual Stress or Strain and Property Degradation 298

14.5 ZrB2–SiC–TiSi2 Composites 300

14.6 Concluding Remarks 301

References 302

15. High-Temperature Mechanical and Oxidation Properties 305

15.1 Introduction 305

15.2 High-Temperature Property Measurements 309

15.3 High-Temperature Mechanical Properties 310

15.3.1 High-Temperature Flexural Strength 310

15.3.2 Hot Hardness Property 311

15.4 Oxidation Behavior of TiB2–MoSi2 312

15.5 Oxidation Behavior of TiB2–TiSi2 315

15.5.1 Oxidation Kinetics 315

15.5.2 Morphological Characteristics of Oxidized Surfaces 317

15.6 Concluding Remarks 317

References 318

Section Six Nanoceramic Composites

16. Overview: Relevance, Characteristics, and Applications of Nanostructured Ceramics 323

16.1 Introduction 323

16.2 Problems Associated with Synthesis of Nanosized Powders 326

16.2.1 Methods of Synthesis of Nanoscaled Ceramic Powders 326

16.2.2 Challenges Posed by the Typical Properties of Nanoscaled Powders 327

16.3 Challenges Faced during Processing 328

16.3.1 Problems Arising due to Fine Powders 328

16.3.2 Challenges Faced due to Agglomerated Powders 329

16.4 Processing of Bulk Nanocrystalline Ceramics 330

16.4.1 Processes Used for Developing Bulk Nanocrystalline Ceramics 330

16.4.2 Mechanisms Leading to Enhanced Sintering Kinetics on Pressure Application 331

16.5 Mechanical Properties of Bulk Ceramic Nanomaterials 332

16.5.1 Mechanical Properties 332

16.5.1.1 Hardness and Yield Strength 332

16.5.1.2 Fracture Strength and Fracture Toughness 335

16.5.1.3 Superplasticity 338

16.6 Applications of Nanoceramics 339

16.7 Conclusion and Outlook 341

References 343

17. Oxide Nanoceramic Composites 347

17.1 Overview 347

17.2 Al2O3-Based Nanocomposites 349

17.3 ZrO2-Based Nanocomposites 355

17.4 Case Study 356

17.4.1 Yttria-Stabilized Tetragonal Zirconia Polycrystal Nanoceramics 356

17.4.2 ZrO2–ZrB2 Nanoceramic Composites 357

References 363

18. Microstructure Development and Properties of Non-Oxide Ceramic Nanocomposites 366

18.1 Nanocomposites Based on Si3N4 366

18.2 Other Advanced Nanocomposites 371

18.2.1 Mullite–SiC 371

18.2.2 Yttrium Aluminum Garnet–SiC 371

18.2.3 SiC–TiC 371

18.2.4 Hydroxyapatite–ZrO2 Nanobiocomposites 371

18.2.5 Stress-Sensing Nanocomposites 372

18.3 WC-Based Nanocomposites 372

18.3.1 Background 372

18.3.2 WC–ZrO2 Nanoceramic Composites 375

18.3.3 WC–ZrO2–Co Nanocomposites 380

18.3.4 Toughness of WC–ZrO2-Based Nanoceramic Composites 384

18.3.5 Comparison with Other Ceramic Nanocomposites 385

References 387

Section Seven Bioceramics and Biocomposites

19. Overview: Introduction to Biomaterials 393

19.1 Introduction 393

19.2 Hard Tissues 394

19.3 Some Useful Definitions and Their Implications 395

19.3.1 Biomaterial 395

19.3.2 Biocompatibility 397

19.3.3 Host Response 397

19.4 Cell–Material Interaction 398

19.5 Bacterial Infection and Biofilm Formation 400

19.6 Different Factors Influencing Bacterial Adhesion 402

19.6.1 Material Factors 404

19.6.2 Bacteria-Related Factors 405

19.6.3 External Factors 406

19.7 Experimental Evaluation of Biocompatibility 406

19.8 Overview of Properties of Some Biomaterials 413

19.8.1 Coating on Metals 413

19.8.2 Glass-Ceramics-Based Biomaterials 417

19.9 Outlook 418

References 419

20. Calcium Phosphate-Based Bioceramic Composites 422

20.1 Introduction 422

20.2 Bioinert Ceramics 424

20.3 Calcium Phosphate-Based Biomaterials 425

20.4 Calcium Phosphate–Mullite Composites 428

20.4.1 Mechanical Properties 430

20.4.2 Biocompatibility (In Vitro and In Vivo) 431

20.5 Hydroxyapatite–Ti System 434

20.6 Enhancement of Antimicrobial Properties of Hydroxyapatite 434

20.6.1 Hydroxyapatite–Ag System 437

20.6.2 Hydroxyapatite–ZnO System 439

References 443

21. Tribological Properties of Ceramic Biocomposites 448

21.1 Introduction 448

21.2 Tribology of Ceramic Biocomposites 449

21.3 Tribological Properties of Mullite-Reinforced Hydroxyapatite 450

21.3.1 Materials and Experiments 451

21.3.2 Effect of Lubrication on the Wear Resistance of Mullite-Reinforced Hydroxyapatite 451

21.3.3 Surface Topography of Mullite-Reinforced Hydroxyapatite after Fretting Wear 454

21.4 Tribological Properties of Plasma-Sprayed Hydroxyapatite Reinforced with Carbon Nanotubes 454

21.4.1 Bulk Wear Resistance of Hydroxyapatite Reinforced with Carbon Nanotubes 454

21.4.2 Nanomechanical Properties of Hydroxyapatite Reinforced with Carbon Nanotubes 457

21.4.3 Nanoscratching of Hydroxyapatite Reinforced with Carbon Nanotubes 461

21.5 Laser Surface Treatment of Calcium Phosphate Biocomposites 461

References 470

Index 472

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Bikramjit Basu, PhD, is an Associate Professor in the Department of Materials Science and Engineering at the Indian Institute of Technology (IIT) Kanpur. He is currently on leave at the Materials Research Center, Indian Institute of Science (IISc), Bangalore, India. His research interests include processing-structure-property correlation in structural ceramics, including nanoceramics and nanocomposites as well as biomaterials and tribology of advanced materials. In recognition of his contributions to the field of ceramic and biomaterials science, he has received noteworthy awards from the Indian National Academy of Engineering (2004), the Indian National Science Academy (2005), the Metallurgist of the Year Award (2010) from the Indian government, and the NASI - SCOPUS Young Scientist Award (2010) from Elsevier and the National Academy of Sciences, India (NASI). He was the recipient of the Robert L. Coble Award for Young Scholars from the American Ceramic Society in 2008.

Kantesh Balani, PhD, is an Assistant Professor in the Department of Materials Science and Engineering at the Indian Institute of Technology (IIT) Kanpur. His research focuses on the processing and characterization of carbon nanotube (CNT) based biomaterials, energy materials, and correlating mechanics at multiple length scales. He has received several recognitions as a Young Scientist, as well as a Young Engineer, for his contributions in the field of materials science.

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“For professionals or students I would recommend this book as a valuable source of reference and information.”  (Materials World, 1 March 2013)

"The book provides easy understanding by students as well as professionals interested in advanced ceramic composites." (Metall, 1 January 2012)
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