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Urogenital Imaging: A Problem-Oriented Approach

S. Morcos (Editor), Henrik Thomsen (Co-Editor)
ISBN: 978-0-470-51089-6
448 pages
March 2009
Urogenital Imaging: A Problem-Oriented Approach (0470510897) cover image
  • Organised according to presenting signs, with discussion of appropriate investigations
  • Outlines strengths and weaknesses of different imaging modalities and discusses appropriate choice of technique in each instance
  • Reviews differential diagnoses and corroborative tests
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Foreword.

Preface.

Contributors.

1 Adrenal Imaging (Khaled M. Elsayes, Isaac R. Francis, Melvyn Korobkin and Gerard M. Doherty).

1.1 Introduction.

1.2 Cushing’s syndrome.

1.3 Primary hyperaldosteronism.

1.4 Pheochromocytoma.

1.5 Adrenal cortical carcinoma.

1.6 Adrenal incidentaloma.

2 Retroperitoneal Masses (Pietro Pavlica, Massimo Valentino and Libero Barozzi).

2.1 Introduction.

2.2 Retroperitoneal anatomy.

2.3 Pathological conditions.

2.4 Primary solid retroperitoneal tumors.

2.5 Retroperitoneal lymphoma.

2.6 Cystic retroperitoneal masses.

2.7 Retroperitoneal metastases.

2.8 Retroperitoneal fibrosis (Ormond’s disease).

2.9 Retroperitoneal fluid collections (traumatic and non-traumatic).

References.

3 Imaging of Renal Artery Stenosis (Robert Hartman).

3.1 Introduction.

3.2 Clinical features.

3.3 Pathology.

3.4 Imaging of suspected renal artery stenosis.

References.

4 Renal Masses (Philip J. Kenney).

4.1 Introduction.

4.2 Symptomatic renal carcinoma.

4.3 Incidental renal masses.

4.4 Patients with a known cancer (other than RCC).

4.5 Renal mass in patients with symptoms.

4.6 Vascular lesions presenting as a renal mass.

4.7 Renal mass in patients with cystic disease.

4.8 Treatment.

References.

5 Non-neoplastic Renal Cystic Lesions (Sameh K. Morcos).

5.1 Introduction.

5.2 Classification.

5.3 Cystic lesions affecting renal cortex.

5.4 Cystic lesions of renal medulla.

5.5 Cystic diseases affecting both the cortex and medulla.

References.

6 Urological and Vascular Complications Post-renal Transplantation (Tarek El-Diasty and Yasser Osman).

6.1 Introduction.

6.2 Vascular complications.

6.3 Urological complications.

6.4 Ureteric strictures.

6.5 Post-transplant lymphocele.

6.6 Delayed graft function (DGF).

6.7 Post-transplant bladder malignancy.

References.

7 Urinary Tract Injuries (Elliott R. Friedman, Stanford M. Goldman and Tung Shu).

7.1 Introduction.

7.2 Renal trauma.

7.3 Adrenal trauma.

7.4 Ureteral trauma.

7.5 Bladder trauma.

7.6 Urethral trauma.

7.7 Penile and scrotal trauma.

References.

8 Urinary Tract Infections (Mikael Hellstr¨om, Ulf Jodal, Rune Sixt and Eira Stokland).

8.1 Symptomatic urinary tract infection in children.

8.2 Symptomatic upper urinary tract infection in adults.

8.3 Emphysematous pyelonephritis.

8.4 Xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis.

8.5 Urinary tract infection in the immunocompromised patient.

8.6 Tuberculosis.

8.7 Schistosomiasis.

8.8 Hydatid disease (echinococcosis).

8.9 Urethritis.

References.

9 Imaging of the Genitourinary System – Urolithiasis (Sami A Moussa and Paramananthan Mariappan).

9.1 Introduction.

9.2 Pathology.

9.3 Clinical features.

9.4 Evaluation of patients with suspected urinary stones.

9.5 Treatment.

9.6 Imaging.

References.

10 Hematuria (Thomas Bretlau, Kirstine L. Hermann, Jørgen Nordling and Henrik S. Thomsen).

10.1 Definition.

10.2 Clinical considerations.

10.3 Diagnosis of hematuria.

10.4 Epidemiology.

10.5 Distribution of malignancy in patients with hematuria.

10.6 Imaging.

10.7 Summary.

References.

11 Bladder Cancer (G. Heinz-Peer and C. Kratzik).

11.1 Introduction .

11.2 Clinical features.

11.3 Pathology.

11.4 Imaging findings.

11.5 Treatment planning.

11.6 Post-treatment Imaging.

11.7 Summary.

References.

12 Imaging of Urinary Diversion (Sameh Hanna and Hesham Badawy).

12.1 Introduction.

12.2 Indications for urinary diversion.

12.3 Types of urinary diversion.

12.4 Non-continent cutaneous form of diversion.

12.5 Continent cutaneous urinary diversion (Continent Catheterizing Pouches).

12.6 Non-orthotopic continent diversion, relying on the anal sphincter for continence.

12.7 Orthotopic form of diversion to the native, intact urethra (neobladder).

12.8 Contraindications to urinary diversion.

12.9 Complications of urinary diversions.

12.10 The role of radiologist in urinary diversion includes.

12.11 Imaging studies.

12.12 Imaging of complications.

12.13 Summary.

References.

13 Imaging of the Prostate Gland (Franc¸ois Cornud).

13.1 Introduction.

13.2 Zonal anatomy and benign prostatic hypertrophy.

13.3 Diagnosis of prostate cancer: TRUS features.

13.4 Diagnostic of prostate cancer: MRI.

13.5 Contrast-enhanced (dynamic) MRI.

13.6 Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopic Imaging (MRSI).

13.7 Diffusion-weighted imaging.

13.8 Indications of functional MRI.

13.9 Extension of prostate cancer.

13.10 Local extension by TRUS and TRUS-guided biopsy.

13.11 MRI and staging of prostate cancer.

13.12 Local staging.

13.13 Lymph node metastases: lympho-MRI.

13.14 Bone metastases: whole marrow MRI.

13.15 Benign disorders of the prostate (BPH excluded).

References.

14 Haemospermia (Drew A. Torigian, Keith N. Van Arsdalen and Parvati Ramchandani).

14.1 Introduction.

14.2 Clinical features.

14.3 Pathology.

14.4 Imaging findings.

14.5 Summary.

References.

15 Scrotal Masses  (Lorenzo E. Derchi and Alchiede Simonato).

15.1 Introduction.

15.2 Clinical features.

15.3 Pathology.

15.4 Imaging.

15.5 Important principles in assessment of scrotal masses.

15.6 Important problems in differentiating benign from malignant lesions.

References.

16 Gynaecological Adnexal Masses (John A. Spencer and Michael J. Weston).

16.1 Introduction.

16.2 Clinical features.

16.3 Pathology.

16.4 Imaging.

16.5 Standard radiographic techniques.

16.6 Ultrasound (US).

16.7 MR Imaging (MRI).

16.8 Computed Tomography.

References.

17 Imaging of Abnormal Uterine Bleeding (Patricia No¨el, Evis Sala and Caroline Reinhold).

17.1 Abnormal uterine bleeding.

17.2 Adenomyosis.

17.3 Leiomyomas.

17.4 Endometrial polyp.

17.5 Endometrial hyperplasia.

17.6 Endometrial carcinoma.

17.7 Summary.

References.

18 Female Pelvic Floor Dysfunction (Rania Farouk El Sayed).

18.1 Introduction.

18.2 Anatomical considerations.

18.3 Pathophysiology of pelvic floor dysfunction.

18.4 Clinical features.

18.5 Imaging of pelvic floor dysfunction.

18.6 Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).

References.

19 Imaging of female infertility (Ahmed-Emad Mahfouz and Hanan Sherif).

19.1 Introduction.

19.2 Polycystic ovary syndrome.

19.3 Abnormalities of the fallopian tubes (Hydrosalpinx/Hematosalpinx, tubal block).

19.4 Fibroids.

19.5 Adenomyosis.

19.6 Developmental anomalies of the uterus.

19.7 Endometriosis.

19.8 Imaging.

Index.

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