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Psychiatrists and Traditional Healers: Unwitting Partners in Global Mental Health

ISBN: 978-0-470-51683-6
294 pages
April 2009
Psychiatrists and Traditional Healers: Unwitting Partners in Global Mental Health (0470516836) cover image
This exceptional book responds to the intense current interest in defining and understanding the contribution of traditional medical knowledge and the intervention techniques of traditional healers to national mental health services around the world.
  • First book on traditional healing and transcultural psychiatry
    Delineates the knowledge and clinical skills of traditional healers from diverse cultural areas around the world
  • Describes the clinical and social roles of traditional healers in their communities and the challenges of constructing national mental health programs that include traditional knowledge and healing techniques
  • Assesses issues on efficacy and safety of traditional healers' interventions
  • Includes contributions from leading scholars in this field from South Africa, India, New Zealand, Andorra, Canada, USA, Italy, and the Quichua and Sioux Lakota Nations of South and North America
  • Theme of culture versus science: The psychiatrists discuss the effects of local culture upon mental health and consider the impact, benefit and incorporation of traditional healing as a tool for the clinical psychiatrist.
  • Easy to use with case studies and vignettes throughout and a glossary to explain any technical terms

    Psychiatrists and Traditional Healers: Unwitting Partners in Global Mental Health is a valuable addition to the bookshelf of a wide array of mental health trainees, researchers and professionals interested in cultural psychiatry in general and the role of traditional healers around the world.
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1. Overview: Looking Toward the Future of Shared Knowledge and Healing Practices (Ronald Wintrob).

1.1 Introductory remarks.

1.2 Complementary and alternative medicine.

1.3 The US national center for complementary and alternative medicine.

1.4 Botanicals, biological products and their commercial development.

1.5 The medical, medicinal and botanical knowledge and the intellectual property rights of indigenous peoples.

1.6 Supernatural determinism, faith healing and exorcism.

1.7 Faith healing.

1.8 Curanderismo and candomble.

1.9 Towards the integration of medical and traditional healing; case examples from the Americas.

1.10 Concluding comments.

2. Legitimacy and contextual issues in traditional Lakota Sioux healing (Jeffrey A. Henderson).

1.11 Introduction.

1.12 Definitions.

1.13 Research on indigenous healing in the Americas.

1.14 Traditional Lakota Sioux healing.

1.15 Renewed interest in traditional medicine.

1.16 Rephrasing a typical question.

1.17 Issues with legitimacy.

1.18 Reimbursement for traditional healing services in the United States: What are we getting ourselves into?

1.19 Conclusion.

References.

3. Doctor-patient relationship in psychiatry: traditional approaches in India versus Western approaches (Vijoy K. Varma and Nitin Gupta).

1.20 Introduction.

1.21 Psychotherapy: definitions and common concepts.

1.22 Western models of doctor-patient relationship.

1.23 Traditional model of doctor-patient relationship.

1.24 Psycho-cultural variables relevant to doctor-patient relationship.

1.25 Conclusion.

4 South American indigenous knowledge of psychotropics (Sioui Maldonado Bouchard).

1.26 Introduction.

1.27 Definitions.

1.28 Three indigenous peoples' medicinal plants: quinine, coca and ayahuasca.

1.29 Legal issues.

1.30 Conclusion.

References.

5. Psychiatric case identification skills of Yachactaita (Quichua healers of the Andes) (Mario Incayawar, Former William F. and Former Henry R.).

1.31 Introduction.

1.32 The Quichua people.

1.33 Research methods.

1.34 Comparison of Quichua and Western diagnosis.

1.35 The Western clinical diagnosis.

1.36 Diagnostic ability of Yachactaitas.

1.37 Traditional healers' diagnostic abilities in other societies.

1.38 Clinical, research and health policy implications.

1.39 Conclusion.

1.40 Acknowledgment.

References.

6. A Western psychiatrist among the Shuar people of Ecuador (Joan Obiols-Llandrich).

1.41 Introduction.

1.42 The Shuar culture.

1.43 Shuar hallucinogenic use.

1.44 The survey.

1.45 Previous research in the Shuar area.

1.46 First steps in the Shuar territory: collaborating as a psychiatrist.

1.47 Witchcraft and disease.

1.48 The Wishin (the Shuar Shaman).

1.49 The Natem experience.

1.50 Conclusion.

References.

7. The awakening of collaboration between Quichua healers and psychiatrists in the Andes (Lise Bouchard).

1.51 Introduction.

1.52 Pervasive social exclusion.

1.53 Health disparities and health care inequities.

1.54 The Quichua response: Jambihuasi.

1.55 Going further: the foundation of Runajambi.

1.56 Conclusion.

References.

8. Factors associated with use of traditional healers in American Indians and Alaska natives (Jeffrey A. Henderson).

1.57 Introduction.

1.58 How we assessed traditional healer use.

1.59 Results - scope of traditional healer use.

1.60 Discussion.

1.61 Acknowledgments.

References.

9. Rekindling the fire: healing historical trauma in Native American prison inmates (L. Tyler Barlow and Karuna R. Thompson).

9.1 Imprisonment and my life as a spiritual advisor.

9.2 A snapshot of life in an American prison.

9.3 Holocaust of aboriginal Native American peoples.

9.4 Native Americans in the Oregon state prison system.

9.5 Historical trauma and traditional Native American methods of healing.

9.6 Native American healing programs within the Oregon department of corrections.

9.7 Dignity, identity and redemption.

9.8 Personal comments from inmates.

References.

10. American Indian healers and psychiatrists (Jay H. Shore, James H. Shore and Spero M. Manson).

1.62 Introduction.

1.63 American Indian veterans, psychiatrists and traditional healers: background.

1.64 American Indian veterans, psychiatrists and traditional healers: Southwest tribes.

1.65 American Indian veterans, psychiatrists and traditional healers: Northern Plains tribe.

1.66 Discussion.

References.

11. Mental health in contemporary China (Xudong Zhao).

1.67 The medical care system and mental health service in China.

1.68 Difficulties facing mental health professionals.

1.69 Help-seeking behaviors of Chinese patients.

1.70 Distinguishing among types of 'traditional Chinese medicine'.

1.71 Psychotherapeutic and communicative aspects of TCM.

1.72 Folk healers in China.

1.73 Conclusions.

1.74 Acknowledgments.

References.

12. Health seeking behavior for mental disorders in North India (Antti Pakaslahti).

1.75 Introduction.

1.76 Orientation to the temples and the healing tradition.

1.77 The network of healers in Balaji.

1.78 Background and help-seeking pathways of patients.

1.79 On symptoms and diagnoses of patients in two perspectives.

1.80 Three accounts of help-seeking.

1.81 Summary.

1.82 Summary.

1.83 Summary.

1.84 Summing up for future research.

References.

13. Anxiety, acceptance and Japanese healing (Fumitaka Noda).

1.85 Foreword.

1.86 Japanese psychology.

1.87 Japanese anxiety.

1.88 The religious climate of Japan.

1.89 Local treatment (Morita Therapy).

1.90 Coexistence with traditional healers.

1.91 Healing and salvation.

1.92 Acknowledgment.

1.93 Note.

References.

14. Traditional healing and its discontents (Robert Lemelson).

1.94 Introduction.

1.95 Obsessive compulsive disorder and Tourette's syndrome.

1.96 Traditional healing of neuropsychiatric disorders: meaning and the issue of efficacy.

1.97 Introduction to Balinese traditional healing systems.

1.98 Broad philosophical organizing features of Balinese healing.

1.99 Conclusion.

References.

15. Islamic religious and traditional healers' contributions to mental health and well-being (M. Fakhr El-Islam).

15.1 Introduction.

15.2 Mental health and the Moslem identity.

15.3 The Islamic religion in everyday mental life.

15.4 Islamic self-help therapy by worship.

15.5 Islamic religion as a background yardstick in mental health.

15.6 The relationship between psychiatrists and religious healers.

15.7 Traditional healing practice in the Islamic world.

15.8 Conclusion.

References.

16. Bringing together indigenous and Western medicine in South Africa: a university initiative (Dan L. Mkize).

1.100 Introduction.

1.101 The inception of Western medical systems.

1.102 Prospects for a new African health care system.

1.103 The African health care system.

1.104 Objectives of the African health care system (AHCS).

1.105 Resources.

1.106 Stakeholders.

1.107 Networks.

1.108 Work plan.

1.109 Challenges.

1.110 Conclusion.

References.

17. Globalization and mental health - traditional in pathways to care in the United Kingdom (Ajoy Tachil and Dinesh Bhugra).

1.111 Introduction.

1.112 Migration, mental health and traditional medicine.

1.113 Traditional medicine and pathways to mental health care.

1.114 Complementary and alternative medicine - relevance and collaboration.

1.115 Conclusion.

References.

18. Psychotherapy or religious healing (Micol Ascoli)?

1.116 Introduction.

1.117 The charismatic theoretical approach to illness.

1.118 The therapeutic factors in Catholic charismatic religious healing.

1.119 Discussion.

References.

19. Maori knowledge and medical science (Mason Durie).

1.120 Introduction.

1.121 Traditional healing in contemporary New Zealand.

1.122 The structure of Maori healing process.

1.123 Indigenous knowledge and science.

1.124 Indigenous healing and biomedicine.

1.125 Indigenous healing contributions to global mental health.

1.126 Exploring the interface.

1.127 Impacts.

References.

20. Future partnerships in global mental health (Mario Incayawar, William F. Quillian and Henry R. Luce).

1.128 The global burden of mental illness.

1.129 Needless suffering.

1.130 Medical workforce shortage and allocation of funds.

1.131 Unveiling traditional healers contributions.

1.132 Foreseeing future partnerships.

1.133 Acknowledgment.

References.

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Mario Incayawar, recipient of the John Simon Guggenheim Fellowship 2006, is Director of 'Runajambi' - Institute for the Study of Quichua Culture and Health.

Ron Wintrob is President of the WPA Section on Transcultural Psychiatry.

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"This excellent book offers the reader a diversity of views to help them form their own opinion about the feasibility of such partnerships . . . this text is enlightening as to the development of guidelines for the treatment and management of a controversial condition, which presents a challenge to psychiatrists and society as a whole." (British Journal of Psychiatry, October 2010)."The fact that the book tries to start to address the topic, mapping it, is already a remarkable feat. The book may well be one of the first ones addressing a topic that will have to become widely discussed very soon in order to provide a satisfactory answer to the contemporary health world demands." (Metapsychology, January 2010)

What is so important about this volume is that it is written by psychiatrists for psychiatrists, with the imprimatur of the World Psychiatric Association. (PsycCRITIQUES, April 2010)

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