Wiley.com
Print this page Share

Advances in Industrial Mixing: A Companion to the Handbook of Industrial Mixing

ISBN: 978-0-470-52382-7
1044 pages
November 2015
Advances in Industrial Mixing: A Companion to the Handbook of Industrial Mixing (0470523824) cover image

Description

Advances in Industrial Mixing is a companion volume and update to the Handbook of Industrial Mixing. The second volume fills in gaps for a number of industries that were not covered in the first edition. Significant changes in five of the fundamental areas are covered in entirely updated or new chapters. The original text is provided as a searchable pdf file on the accompanying USB.

  • This book explains industrial mixers and mixing problems clearly and concisely.
  • Gives practical insights by the top professionals in the field, combining industrial design standards with fundamental insight.
  • Details applications in 14 key industries. Six of these are new since the first edition.
  • Provides the professional with information he/she did not receive in school.
  • Five completely rewritten chapters on mixing fundamentals where significant advances have happened since the first edition and seven concise update chapters which summarize critical technical information.
See More

Table of Contents

Contributors List xxxix

Editors’ Introduction xliii

Contents of the DVD, Including Instructional Videos lvii

A Technical Definition of Mixing 1
Jo¨elle Aubin and Suzanne M. Kresta

Range of Industrial Mixing Applications 2

Three Dimensions of Segregation: A Technical Definition of Mixing 3

Identifying Mixing Problems: Defining the Critical Scales and Process Objectives 5

Notation 9

References 9

1a Residence Time Distributions 11
E. Bruce Nauman

1a-1 Introduction 12

1b Mean Age Theory for Quantitative Mixing Analysis 15
Minye Liu

1b-1 Introduction 15

1b-2 Age and Time in a Flow System 16

1b-3 Governing Equations of Mean Age and Higher Moments 17

1b-4 Computation of Mean Age 20

1b-4.1 Validations of Numerical Solutions 20

1b-4.2 Spatial Distribution of Mean Age in Mixing Devices 21

1b-5 Relations of Mean Age and Residence Time Distribution 25

1b-6 Variances and the Degree of Mixing 27

1b-6.1 Variance of Residence Time Distribution 27

1b-6.2 Variances of Age 28

1b-6.3 Degree of Mixing 28

1b-6.4 Spatial Nonuniformity in CFSTRs 30

1b-7 Mean Age and Concentration in a CFSTR 31

1b-7.1 Time History of Tracer Concentration 31

1b-7.2 Mixing Time in CFSTRs 33

1b-8 Probability Distribution Function of Mean Age 34

1b-8.1 Definition 34

1b-8.2 Scaling and Blend Time Estimation 35

1b-9 Future Development of Mean Age Theory 39

Nomenclature 39

Greek Letters 40

References 41

2a Turbulence in Mixing Applications 43
Suzanne M. Kresta and Robert S. Brodkey

2a-1 Introduction 44

2b Update to Turbulence in Mixing Applications 47

M´arcio B. Machado and Suzanne M. Kresta

2b-1 Introduction 47

2b-2 The Velocity Field and Turbulence 48

2b-2.1 Circulation and Macromixing 51

2b-2.2 Fully Turbulent Limits and the Scaling of Turbulence 53

2b-3 Spectrum of Turbulent Length Scales: Injection of Scalar (Either Reagent or Additive) and the Macro-, Meso-, and Microscales of Mixing 56

2b-3.1 Mesoscale Mixing 59

2b-3.2 New Experimental Results 61

2b-3.3 Summary 65

2b-4 Turbulence and Mixing of Solids, Liquids, and Gases 65

2b-5 Specifying Mixing Requirements for a Process 66

2b-5.1 Mixing Test Cells 69

2b-6 Conclusions 78

Notation 78

Roman Characters 78

Greek Characters 79

References 80

3a Laminar Mixing: A Dynamical Systems Approach 85
Edit S. Szalai, Mario M. Alvarez, and Fernando J. Muzzio

3a-1 Introduction 86

3b Microstructure, Rheology, and Processing of Complex Fluids 87

Patrick T. Spicer and James F. Gilchrist

3b-1 Introduction 87

3b-2 Literature Analysis—Mixing of Complex Fluids 90

3b-3 Common Complex Fluid Rheology Classes and Their Effects 92

3b-3.1 Shear-Thinning Fluids 93

3b-3.2 Yield Stress Fluids 95

3b-3.3 Shear-Thickening Fluids 101

3b-3.4 Time-Dependent Fluids 103

3b-4 Conclusions 110

Nomenclature 110

Greek Symbols 111

References 111

Part A: Measuring Tools and Techniques for Mixing and Flow Visualization Studies 115
David A. R. Brown, Pip N. Jones, and John C. Middleton

4-1 Introduction 117

4-2.3 Scale of Operation 154

5a Computational Fluid Mixing 119
Elizabeth Marden Marshall and Andr´e Bakker

5a-1 Introduction 120

5b CFD Modeling of Stirred Tank Reactors 123
Minye Liu

5b-1 Numerical Issues 123

5b-1.1 Mesh Types 123

5b-1.2 Effect of Mesh Size on Mean Flow and Turbulent Diffusion 124

5b-1.3 Discretization Schemes 125

5b-1.4 Time Integration 126

5b-1.5 Convergence 127

5b-1.6 Treatment of Impellers 129

5b-1.7 Numerical Diffusion 130

5b-2 Turbulence Models 131

5b-2.1 The RANS Models 132

5b-2.2 The LES Method 133

5b-2.3 The DES Method 135

5b-2.4 The DNS Method 135

5b-2.5 Laminar and Transitional Flows 136

5b-3 Quantitative Predictions 137

5b-3.1 Power Number 137

5b-3.2 Flow Number Calculation 137

5b-3.3 Blend Time Calculation 139

5b-4 Modeling Other Physics 142

5b-4.1 Solid–Liquid Flows 142

5b-4.2 Gas–Liquid and Liquid–Liquid Flows 143

5b-4.3 Flows with Other Physics and Chemistry 143

Nomenclature 144

Greek Letters 144

References 145

6a Mechanically Stirred Vessels 149
Ramesh R. Hemrajani and Gary B. Tatterson

6a-1 Introduction 150

6b Flow Patterns and Mixing 153

Suzanne M. Kresta and David S. Dickey

6b-1 Introduction 153

6b-2 Circulation Patterns 154

6b-2.1 Base Case: Down-Pumping Pitched-Blade Turbine—(PBTD, D = T/3 and C = T/3) 157

6b-2.2 Baffles 157

6b-2.3 Changing the Impeller Type 158

6b-2.4 Impeller Diameter 160

6b-2.5 Off-Bottom Clearance 162

6b-2.6 Bottom Shape 166

6b-2.7 Liquid Level 168

6b-2.8 Baffle Options 170

6b-2.9 Viscosity 173

6b-2.10 Off-Set and Angled Shafts 175

6b-2.11 Continuous Flow 178

6b-3 Coupling the Velocity Field with Applications 178

6b-3.1 Solids Suspension 179

6b-3.2 Gas Dispersion 181

6b-3.3 Air Entrainment, Liquid Drawdown, and Drawdown of Floating Solids 182

6b-3.4 Reactor Design 184

6b-3.5 Summary 185

Nomenclature 185

Greek Symbols 185

References 186

6c Vessel Heads: Depths, Volumes, and Areas 189
David S. Dickey, Daniel R. Crookston, and Reid B. Crookston

6c-1 Head Depth 190

6c-2 Head Volume 193

6c-3 Head Area 194

6c-4 Dimensionless Coefficients for Torispherical Heads 195

6c-5 Calculations for Conical Bottoms 197

6c-6 Other Types of Bottoms 199

Nomenclature 199

Dimensional Variables and Parameters 199

Dimensionless Variables and Parameters 199

Dimensionless Greek Symbols 200

References 200

7a Mixing in Pipelines 201
Arthur W. Etchells III and Chris F. Meyer

7a-1 Introduction 202

7b Update to Mixing in Pipelines 205
Thomas A. Simpson, Michael K. Dawson, and Arthur W. Etchells III

7b-1 Introduction 205

7b-2 Use of CFD with Static Mixers 206

7b-3 Recent Developments in Single-Phase Blending 207

7b-3.1 Laminar Blending Updates 207

7b-3.2 Transitional Blending Updates 209

7b-3.3 Turbulent Blending Updates 210

7b-3.4 Reactive Mixing with Static Mixers 218

7b-3.5 Low-Pressure-Drop Turbulent Blending 219

7b-4 Recent Developments in Multiphase Dispersions 222

7b-4.1 Liquid–Liquid and Gas–Liquid Dispersions in Viscous Bulk 222

7b-4.2 Liquid–Liquid Dispersions in Turbulent and Transitional Flow 223

7b-4.3 New Methods for Calculation of Pressure Drop and Drop Size 225

7b-4.4 Emulsification 225

7b-4.5 Vortex Mixer Emulsification 226

7b-4.6 Dispersion with Screens 227

7b-4.7 Supercritical Mass Transfer 228

7b-4.8 Gas-Phase Continuous Systems 228

7b-5 Mixing with Static Mixers When Solids are Present 229

7b-5.1 Disposable Static Mixers 231

Notation 232

Roman Characters 232

Greek Characters 233

Subscripts 233

References 235

7c Introduction to Micromixers 239
Jo¨elle Aubin and Abraham D. Stroock

7c-1 Introduction 239

7c-2 Mixing and Transport Phenomena 240

7c-3 Micromixer Geometries and Fluid Contacting Mechanisms 241

7c-4 Characterization of Flow and Mixing 244

7c-5 Multiphase Mixing 245

7c-5.1 Liquid–Liquid Mixing 246

7c-5.2 Gas–Liquid Mixing 247

7c-6 Commercial Equipment and Industrial Examples 247

7c-7 Evaluation of the Current and Future Applicability of Microreactors in Industry 250

Notation 251

Suggested Reading 251

References 251

8 Rotor–Stator Mixing Devices 255
Victor Atiemo-Obeng and Richard V. Calabrese

8-1 Introduction 256

8-1.1 Characteristics of Rotor–Stator Mixers 256

8-1.2 Applications of Rotor–Stator Mixers 256

8-1.3 Summary of Current Knowledge 257

9a Blending of Miscible Liquids 259
Richard K. Grenville and Alvin W. Nienow

9a-1 Introduction 260

9b Laminar Mixing Processes in Stirred Vessels 261
Philippe A. Tanguy, Louis Fradette, Gabriel Ascanio, and Ryuichi Yatomi

9b-1 Introduction 261

9b-2 Laminar Mixing Background 263

9b-3 Rheologically Complex Fluids 266

9b-4 Heat Effects 268

9b-5 Laminar Mixing Equipment 269

9b-6 Key Design Parameters 274

9b-6.1 Determination of the Power Number by Dimensional Analysis 275

9b-7 Power Number and Power Constant 276

9b-7.1 Newtonian Power Analysis 276

9b-7.2 Non-Newtonian Power Analysis 278

9b-8 Experimental Techniques to Determine Blend Time 282

9b-9 Mixing Efficiency 285

9b-10 Characterization of the Mixing Flow Field 288

9b-10.1 Experimental Characterization 288

9b-10.2 Computational Fluid Dynamics Characterization 299

9b-11 Hydrodynamic Characterization of Laminar Blending 301

9b-11.1 Identifying the Operating Regime for Laminar Blending 302

9b-11.2 Open Turbines and Close-Clearance Impellers 303

9b-11.3 Coaxial Systems 312

9b-11.4 Mixers with Multiple Off-Centered Shafts 314

9b-11.5 Planetary Mixers 315

9b-11.6 When to Use Baffles 315

9b-11.7 Design Example 316

9b-12 Application of Chaos in Mixing 317

9b-12.1 Impeller Design 317

9b-12.2 Operating Modes 319

9b-12.3 Impeller Position 325

9b-12.4 Impeller Speed 327

9b-13 Selecting an Appropriate Geometry for Generic Applications 328

9b-13.1 Blending 328

9b-13.2 Liquid–Liquid Dispersion and Emulsification 329

9b-13.3 Solid–Liquid Dispersion 330

9b-13.4 Gas–Liquid Dispersion 331

9b-13.5 Aeration Technologies 333

9b-13.6 Fluid Level Changes 334

9b-13.7 Caverns 335

9b-14 Heat and Mass Transfer in the Laminar Mixing 336

9b-15 Industrial Mixing Process Requirements 338

9b-16 Scale-up Rules in the Laminar Regime 340

9b-16.1 Scale-up Based on Constant Speed 340

9b-16.2 Scale-up Based on Constant Heat Balance 341

9b-16.3 Scale-up Based on Constant Mass Balance 341

9b-17 Mixer Troubleshooting and Engineering Calculations 342

9b-17.1 Adhesion 342

9b-17.2 Change of Re upon Change of Scale 342

9b-17.3 Shear Heating Issue 343

9b-17.4 Significant Viscosity Change 344

9b-17.5 Miscible Liquid–Liquid Mixing with Excessive Different Viscosity 344

9b-17.6 Example of Industrial Calculation 346

9b-18 Concluding Remarks 347

Acknowledgments 348

References 348

10 Solid–Liquid Mixing 357
David A. R. Brown, Arthur W. Etchells III, with sections by Richard K. Grenville, Kevin J. Myers, N. Gul O¨ zcan-Tas¸kin incorporating sections by Victor A. Atiemo-Obeng, Piero H. Armenante, and W. Roy Penney

10-1 Introduction and Scope 358

10-1.1 Finding Your Way through This Chapter 358

10-1.2 Key Solid–Liquid Mixing Process Results 359

10-1.3 Solid–Liquid Unit Operations 359

10-1.4 Process Considerations for Solid–Liquid Mixing Operations 362

10-1.5 Effect of Solids on Processing 363

10-2 Solid and Liquid Physical Characteristics 364

10-2.1 Particle Size, Distribution, and Shape 364

10-2.2 Solids Concentration 366

10-2.3 Liquid and Solid Density 368

10-2.4 Liquid Viscosity 368

10-2.5 Settling Rates, Drag Coefficients, Correlations, and Modeling 368

10-2.6 Wettability 369

10-2.7 Stickiness 370

10-3 Agitation of Sinking or Settling Solids 371

10-3.1 Mechanisms of Suspension 371

10-3.2 Relevant Dimensionless Numbers 372

10-3.3 Degrees of Suspension 373

10-3.4 The Just-Suspended Speed, Njs (R. K. Grenville—and D. A. R. Brown) 375

10-3.5 Solids Distribution 385

10-3.6 Effects of Material Properties on Suspension and Distribution 390

10-3.7 Effect of Mixer Geometry 395

10-3.8 Solid Suspension and Distribution in the Presence of Gas 411

10-3.9 Continuous Flow and Semibatch Operation 412

10-3.10 Summary of Design Recommendations and Scale-up Advice 414

10-4 Incorporation and Dispersion of Floating Solids—(N. G. O¨ zcan-Tas¸kin) 416

10-4.1 Design Considerations 416

10-4.2 Mechanisms of Drawdown 417

10-4.3 Effect of Particle Concentration 419

10-4.4 Effect of Impeller Type, Pumping Mode, and Diameter 419

10-4.5 Effect of Impeller Submergence and Liquid Height 421

10-4.6 Effect of Number of Baffles 421

10-4.7 Scale-up 421

10-4.8 Drawdown of Fine Particles 423

10-4.9 Other Devices Used for Particle Incorporation 423

10-5 Attrition and Particle Damage 425

10-5.1 Summary 425

10-5.2 Particle Size Reduction in Stirred Tanks and Similar Equipment 425

10-5.3 Nature of Particulates 426

10-5.4 Mode of Breakage 426

10-5.5 Location of Breakage in Vessel and Concentration Effects 426

10-5.6 Estimating Strengths—General Concepts 428

10-5.7 General Observations 429

10-5.8 Testing Analysis 429

10-5.9 Damage in Biological Systems 429

10-5.10 Preventing Attrition 430

10-6 Solids Suspension and Distribution Using Liquid Jets 430

10-7 Mass Transfer 431

10-7.1 Mass Transfer Regimes in Mechanically Agitated Solid–Liquid Systems 432

10-7.2 Effect of Impeller Speed on Solid–Liquid Mass Transfer 435

10-7.3 Correlations for the Solid–Liquid Mass Transfer, kSL 436

10-7.4 Calculation of Solid–Liquid Mass Transfer Coefficient 437

10-8 Lab and Pilot-Scale Testing 440

Nomenclature 441

Dimensional Variables and Parameters 441

Dimensionless Parameters 442

Greek Symbols 443

References 443

11 Gas—Liquid Mixing in Turbulent Systems 451
John C. Middleton and John M. Smith

11-1 Introduction 452

11-1.1 New Approaches and New Developments 453

11-1.2 Scope of the Chapter 453

11-1.3 Gas-Liquid Mixing Process Objectives and Mechanisms 454

12 Immiscible Liquid–Liquid Systems 457
Douglas E. Leng and Richard V. Calabrese

12-1 Introduction 459

12-1.1 Definition of Liquid–Liquid Systems 459

12-1.2 Practical Relevance 459

12-1.3 Fundamentals 460

12-1.4 Process Complexities in Scale-up 461

12-1.5 Classification by Flow Regime and Liquid Concentration 461

12-1.6 Scope and Approach 461

13a Mixing and Chemical Reactions 465
Gary K. Patterson, Edward L. Paul, Suzanne M. Kresta, and Arthur W. Etchells III

13a-1 Introduction 466

13a-1.1 How Mixing Can Cause Problems 468

13a-1.2 Reaction Schemes of Interest 469

13a-1.3 Relating Mixing and Reaction Time Scales: The Mixing Damkoehler Number 472

13b Scale-up Using the Bourne Protocol: Reactive Crystallization and Mixing Example 479
Aaron Sarafinas and Cheryl I. Teich

13b-1 Example: Redesigning an Uncontrolled Precipitation to a Reactive Crystallization 479

Goal 479

Issue 479

References 489

14a Heat Transfer 491
W. Roy Penney and Victor A. Atiemo-Obeng

14a-1 Introduction 492

14b Heat Transfer In Stirred Tanks—Update 493
Jose Roberto Nunhez

14b-1 Introduction 493

14b-1.1 Overall Heat Transfer Coefficient 493

14b-2 Consideration of Heat Transfer Surfaces used in Mixing Systems 496

14b-2.1 Correlations for Conventional and Spiral-Baffle Annular Jackets 502

14b-2.2 Correlations for Half-Pipe and Dimple Jackets 504

14b-3 Heating and Cooling of Liquids 506

14b-3.1 Heating: Inner Coils or Jacketed Vessel with an Isothermal Medium 507

14b-3.2 Cooling: Inner Coils or Jacketed Vessel with an Isothermal Medium 508

14b-3.3 Heating: Inner Coils or Jacketed Vessel with Nonisothermal Medium 508

14b-3.4 Cooling: Inner Coils or Jacketed Vessel with Nonisothermal Medium 509

14b-3.5 External Heat Exchanger, Isothermal Heating Medium 510

14b-3.6 External Heat Exchanger, Isothermal Cooling Medium 511

14b-4 Summary of Proposed Equations Used in Heat Transfer for Stirred Tanks 512

14b-4.1 Correcting for the Viscosity 512

14b-4.2 Use of Compact Heat Exchangers 517

14b-4.3 Cooling, a Real Problem 517

14b-5 Methodology for Design of Heating Mixing System 518

14b-6 Example 518

14b-6.1 Resolution 519

Acknowledgments 529

Nomenclature 529

Greek Symbols 531

References 531

15 Solids Mixing

Part A: Fundamentals of Solids Mixing 533
Fernando J. Muzzio, Albert Alexander, Chris Goodridge, Elizabeth Shen, and Troy Shinbrot

Part B: Mixing of Particulate Solids in the Process Industries 533
Konanur Manjunath, Shrikant Dhodapkar, and Karl Jacob

16 Mixing of Highly Viscous Fluids, Polymers, and Pastes 539
the late David B. Todd

16-1 Introduction 539

17 Mixing in the Fine Chemicals and Pharmaceutical Industries 541
Edward L. Paul (retired), Michael Midler, and Yongkui Sun

17-1 Introduction 542

18 Mixing in the Fermentation and Cell Culture Industries 543
Ashraf Amanullah and Barry C. Buckland, and Alvin W. Nienow

18-1 Introduction 544

19 Fluid Mixing Technology in the Petroleum Industry 547
Ramesh R. Hemrajani

19-1 Introduction 548

20 Mixing in the Pulp and Paper Industry 551
the late Chad P.J. Bennington

20-1 Introduction 552

21a Mechanical Design of Mixing Equipment 555
David S. Dickey and Julian B. Fasano

21-1 Introduction 556

21b Magnetic Drives for Mixers 559
David S. Dickey

21b-1 Introduction 559

21b-2 Laboratory Magnetic Stirrers 559

21b-3 Top-Entering Magnetic Mixer Drives 561

21b-4 Bottom-Entering Magnetic Mixer Drives 563

22 Role of the Mixing Equipment Supplier 567
Ron Weetman

22-1 Introduction 568

23 Commissioning Mixing Equipment 569
David S. Dickey, Eric Janz, Todd Hutchinson, Thomas Dziekonski, Richard O. Kehn, and Kayla Preston and Jay Dinnison

23-1 Introduction 569

23-2 Commissioning Concepts 570

23-3 Instructions for Commissioning 572

23-3.1 Introduction 572

23-3.2 Warranty Terms 573

23-3.3 Limitation of Liabilities 573

23-4 Safety Instructions 573

23-5 Receiving the Equipment 575

23-5.1 Receipt of the Mixer Drive 575

23-5.2 Receipt of the Impeller 575

23-5.3 Rust Prevention 576

23-5.4 Shipping Covers 576

23-5.5 Field Application of Corrosion Protection 576

23-5.6 Short-Term Storage 577

23-5.7 Long-Term Storage 577

23-6 Kinds of Storage 578

23-6.1 Indoor Storage: Dry, Temperature-Controlled Area 578

23-6.2 Indoor Storage: No Temperature or Humidity Control 579

23-6.3 Outdoor Storage: Not Recommended 580

23-6.4 Preparing Stored Mixers for Service 581

23-7 Installation 582

23-7.1 Preparation 582

23-7.2 Lifting Instructions 582

23-7.3 Shaft Installation 582

23-7.4 Mixer Mounting 586

23-7.5 Mixer Drive Installation 588

23-7.6 Flexible Coupling Installation 589

23-8 Lubrication 590

23-8.1 Filling the Mixer Drive 591

23-8.2 Low-Temperature Operation 591

23-8.3 Kinds of Lubrication 591

23-8.4 Oil Changes Predictive Maintenance (PdM) Procedure and Schedule 592

23-9 Wiring 594

23-9.1 Electric Motors—Single Phase 594

23-9.2 Electric Motors—Three Phase 594

23-9.3 Electric DC Variable Speed 594

23-9.4 Electric AC Variable Speed 595

23-9.5 Other Types of Motors (e.g., Hydraulic Drives) 595

23-10 Initial Operation 595

23-10.1 Preliminary Checks 595

23-10.2 Startup Procedure 596

23-10.3 Operational Checks 596

23-11 Troubleshooting 597

23-12 Maintenance 597

23-12.1 Preventive Maintenance Schedule 597

23-13 Commissioning Shaft Seals 597

23-13.1 Stuffing Box Seals 601

23-13.2 Mechanical Seals 604

23-13.3 Other Seals 608

23-14 Mechanical Checkout, Startup, and Troubleshooting of Agitator Equipment 609

23-14.1 Introduction 609

23-14.2 Mechanical Review 609

23-14.3 Startup and Commissioning 620

23-14.4 Troubleshooting Mixing Applications 627

23-15 Summary 639

Nomenclature 639

Greek Symbols 640

References 640

24 Mixing Safety 641
Gord Winkel and David S. Dickey

24-1 Introduction 641

24-2 The Practice of Risk Management 642

24-3 Summary Comments on Mixing Safety 661

References 663

25 Mixing Issues in Crystallization and Precipitation Operations 665
Alvin W. Nienow and Edward L. Paul

25-1 Introduction 665

25-2 Basic Crystallization Concepts 667

25-2.1 Solubility Curve and Metastable Zone Width 667

25-2.2 Methods of Achieving Supersaturation 669

25-2.3 Nucleation Phenomena 670

25-2.4 Crystal Growth 672

25-2.5 Conclusions 672

25-3 Impact of Mixing on Primary Heterogeneous Nucleation 673

25-3.1 General Considerations and Batch/Semibatch Processes 673

25-3.2 Implications for Scale-up; Continuous Crystallization 673

25-3.3 Conclusions 678

25-4 Impact of Mixing on Secondary Nucleation 678

25-4.1 General Considerations 678

25-4.2 Crystal Impacts on the Impeller and Other Surfaces 679

25-4.3 Crystal–Crystal Impacts 682

25-5 Impact of Mixing on Crystal Growth and Dissolution Rates 684

25-5.1 Growth 684

25-5.2 Dissolution 687

25-6 Selecting Operating Conditions to Optimize Crystal Suspension and Withdrawal 687

25-6.1 Introduction 687

25-6.2 Prediction of NJS 688

25-6.3 Scale-up of Crystal Suspension 691

25-6.4 Crystal Distribution and Withdrawal 691

25-7 Damkoehler Number for Nucleation and Subsurface Feeding of Reactants 695

25-7.1 The Concept 695

25-7.2 Issues in Subsurface Feeding 698

25-8 Stirred Vessel Crystallizers 700

25-8.1 Batch Crystallizer 700

25-8.2 Continuous Crystallizer 702

25-9 Other Types of Equipment 704

25-9.1 Fluidized Beds 704

25-9.2 Impinging Jet Crystallizer 704

25-10 Precipitation 706

25-10.1 Precipitation in Stirred Vessels 707

25-10.2 Use of Impinging Jets and Other Rapid Mixing Devices 711

25-11 Agglomeration and Oiling Out 712

25-12 Conclusions 714

Nomenclature 716

Greek Symbols 717

Subscripts 718

References 718

Appendices 722

Problem Example 1: Slow Approach to Equilibrium 722

Problem Example 2 723

Problem Example 3 725

26 Mixing in theWater and Wastewater Industry 729
Michael K. Dawson

26-1 Introduction 729

26-1.1 Treatment of Water, Wastewater, and Sludge 729

26-1.2 Mixing Operations in Water, Wastewater, and Sludge Processes 733

26-2 Mixing in Drinking Water Treatment 735

26-2.1 Process Applications, Mixing Objectives, Design Criteria, and Constraints 735

26-2.2 Equipment Types 749

26-2.3 Coagulant Mixing Calculation Example 756

26-3 Mixing in Wastewater Treatment 758

26-3.1 Process Applications, Mixing Objectives, Design Criteria, and Constraints 758

26-4 Mixing in Sludge Treatment 765

26-4.1 Process Applications, Mixing Objectives, Design Criteria and Constraints 766

26-4.2 Equipment Types 769

26-4.3 Modeling Study: Anaerobic Digester Mixing 772

26-5 Conclusions 775

Nomenclature 775

Greek Symbols 776

References 777

27 Mixing in the Food Industry 783
P. J. Cullen, Wesley Twombly, Robin Kay Connelly, and David S. Dickey

27-1 Introduction 783

27-2 Building or Reducing Texture Through Mixing 784

27-2.1 Dough Development 785

27-2.2 Texture Formation by Extrusion Mixing 794

27-3 Role of Mixing in Food Treatment 796

27-3.1 Heat Transfer 797

27-4 Food Homogeneity 802

27-5 Advances in the Science of Food Mixing 803

27-6 Other Food Mixers 803

27-6.1 Double-Motion Mixers 805

27-6.2 High-Shear Mixing Equipment 809

27-6.3 Special Devices That Function as Mixers 815

27-6.4 Powder Mixing Equipment 817

27-6.5 Other Common Mixers Used for Food Applications 817

27-7 Typical Food Groups 818

27-7.1 Breads 818

27-7.2 Breakfast Foods 819

27-7.3 Chocolate 819

27-7.4 Condiments 819

27-7.5 Dairy Products 819

27-7.6 Fermented Foods 820

27-7.7 Food Ingredients 820

27-7.8 Meat Foods 821

27-7.9 Pet Foods 821

27-7.10 Sauces 821

27-7.11 Snack Foods 822

27-7.12 Soups 822

27-7.13 Vegetable Foods 822

Nomenclature 823

Greek Symbols 823

References 823

28 Mixing and Processes Validation in the Pharmaceutical Industry 827
Otute Akiti and Piero M. Armenante

28-1 Introduction 827

28-2 Validation in Pharmaceutical Industry 828

28-2.1 Introduction to Concept of Validation 828

28-2.2 Historical Milestones for Validation in Pharmaceutical Industry 828

28-2.3 Process Validation and Pharmaceutical Development Cycle 830

28-2.4 Current Pharmaceutical Process Validation 831

28-2.5 Other Components of Validation 835

28-3 Pharmaceutical Processes and Role of Mixing in Pharmaceutical Production 836

28-3.1 Overview of Pharmaceutical Process Development and Manufacturing 836

28-3.2 Mixing in Pharmaceutical Processes 843

28-4 Examples of Process Validation in Pharmaceutical Industry 852

28-5 Example of Process Validation for API Manufacturing: Manufacturing of EX123 API 852

28-5.1 Process Validation for EX123 API Manufacturing: Stage 1—Process Design 853

28-5.2 Process Validation for EX123 API Manufacturing: Stage 2—Process Qualification 858

28-5.3 Process Validation for EX123 API Manufacturing: Stage 3—Continued Process Verification 864

28-6 Example of Process Validation for Drug Product Manufacturing: Manufacturing of EX123 Drug Product 864

28-6.1 Process Validation for EX123 Drug Product Manufacturing: Stage 1—Process Design 864

28-6.2 Process Validation for EX123 Drug Product Manufacturing: Stage 2—Process Qualification 872

28-6.3 Process Validation for EX123 Drug Product Manufacturing: Stage 3—Continued Process Verification 884

Acknowledgment 885

References 885

Index 891

See More

Author Information

Suzanne M. Kresta is a professor in the Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering at the University of Alberta.

Arthur W. Etchells III is a retired DuPont Fellow with over forty years consulting in industrial mixing.

David S. Dickey is a consultant specializing in mixing processes and equipment with MixTech, Inc. He has more than forty years experience with mixing processes and equipment.

Victor Atiemo-Obeng is retired from The Dow Chemical Company where he worked as a scientist in the Engineering Science and Market Development department.

The North American Mixing Forum provides an opportunity for dialogue about mixing problems in a wide range of industrial applications.
See More

Reviews

“Advances in Industrial Mixing” is an updated version of the “Handbook of Industrial Mixing”
(1). The unchanged text of the “Handbook of Industrial Mixing” is provided electronically (on the accompanying DVD), and only the new or substantially revised contents are provided in the hard copy.....In summary, “Advances in Industrial Mixing” provides an expansion to the “Handbook of Industrial Mixing” (1), including new developments
in both experimental and numerical approaches and new methods developed based on more extensive data for assessing mixing quality. With regards to the issues raised in industry, a wide range of new materials are added in this volume, such as health and safety, and mixing in water, food and the pharmaceutical industry. (Johnson Matthey Technol. Rev., 2017, 61:4)
See More

Related Titles

Back to Top