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CEH Certified Ethical Hacker Study Guide

ISBN: 978-0-470-52520-3
432 pages
April 2010
CEH Certified Ethical Hacker Study Guide (0470525207) cover image

Description

Full Coverage of All Exam Objectives for the CEH Exams 312-50 and EC0-350

Thoroughly prepare for the challenging CEH Certified Ethical Hackers exam with this comprehensive study guide. The book provides full coverage of exam topics, real-world examples, and includes a CD with chapter review questions, two full-length practice exams, electronic flashcards, a glossary of key terms, and the entire book in a searchable pdf e-book.

What's Inside:

  • Covers ethics and legal issues, footprinting, scanning, enumeration, system hacking, trojans and backdoors, sniffers, denial of service, social engineering, session hijacking, hacking Web servers, Web application vulnerabilities, and more
  • Walks you through exam topics and includes plenty of real-world scenarios to help reinforce concepts
  • Includes a CD with an assessment test, review questions, practice exams, electronic flashcards, and the entire book in a searchable pdf
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Table of Contents

Introduction xxi

Assessment Test xxx

Chapter 1 Introduction to Ethical Hacking, Ethics, and Legality 1

Defining Ethical Hacking 2

Understanding the Purpose of Ethical Hacking 3

An Ethical Hacker’s Skill Set 6

Ethical Hacking Terminology 7

The Phases of Ethical Hacking 8

Identifying Types of Hacking Technologies 11

Identifying Types of Ethical Hacks 12

Understanding Testing Types 13

How to Be Ethical 16

Performing a Penetration Test 17

Keeping It Legal 18

Cyber Security Enhancement Act and SPY ACT 19

18 USC §1029 and 1030 20

U.S. State Laws 20

Federal Managers Financial Integrity Act 20

Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) 21

Federal Information Security Management Act (FISMA) 21

Privacy Act of 1974 22

USA PATRIOT Act 22

Government Paperwork Elimination Act (GPEA) 22

Cyber Laws in Other Countries 23

Summary 23

Exam Essentials 23

Review Questions 25

Answers to Review Questions 29

Chapter 2 Gathering Target Information: Reconnaissance, Footprinting, and Social Engineering 31

Reconnaissance 33

Understanding Competitive Intelligence 34

Information-Gathering Methodology 37

Footprinting 38

Using Google to Gather Information 39

Understanding DNS Enumeration 40

Understanding Whois and ARIN Lookups 42

Identifying Types of DNS Records 46

Using Traceroute in Footprinting 46

Understanding Email Tracking 48

Understanding Web Spiders 48

Social Engineering 48

The Art of Manipulation 50

Types of Social Engineering-Attacks 50

Social-Engineering Countermeasures 54

Summary 54

Exam Essentials 55

Review Questions 56

Answers to Review Questions 60

Chapter 3 Gathering Network and Host Information: Scanning and Enumeration 63

Scanning 64

The CEH Scanning Methodology 67

Ping Sweep Techniques 68

nmap Command Switches 70

Scan Types 73

TCP Communication Flag Types 73

War-Dialing Techniques 76

Banner Grabbing and OS Fingerprinting Techniques 77

Scanning Anonymously 79

Enumeration 81

Null Sessions 82

SNMP Enumeration 84

Windows 2000 DNS Zone Transfer 85

Summary 86

Exam Essentials 87

Review Questions 89

Answers to Review Questions 93

Chapter 4 System Hacking: Password Cracking, Escalating Privileges, and Hiding Files 95

The Simplest Way to Get a Password 96

Types of Passwords 96

Passive Online Attacks 97

Active Online Attacks 98

Offline Attacks 99

Nonelectronic Attacks 101

Cracking a Password 102

Understanding the LAN Manager Hash 103

Cracking Windows 2000 Passwords 103

Redirecting the SMB Logon to the Attacker 105

SMB Relay MITM Attacks and Countermeasures 106

NetBIOS DoS Attacks 107

Password-Cracking Countermeasures 107

Understanding Keyloggers and Other Spyware Technologies 109

Escalating Privileges 110

Executing Applications 111

Buffer Overflows 111

Understanding Rootkits 112

Planting Rootkits on Windows 2000 and XP Machines 112

Rootkit Embedded TCP/IP Stack 112

Rootkit Countermeasures 113

Hiding Files 113

NTFS File Streaming 114

NTFS Stream Countermeasures 114

Understanding Steganography Technologies 115

Covering Your Tracks and Erasing Evidence 116

Summary 117

Exam Essentials 118

Review Questions 119

Answers to Review Questions 123

Chapter 5 Trojans, Backdoors, Viruses, and Worms 125

Trojans and Backdoors 126

Overt and Covert Channels 128

Types of Trojans 130

How Reverse-Connecting Trojans Work 130

How the Netcat Trojan Works 132

Trojan Construction Kit and Trojan Makers 135

Trojan Countermeasures 135

Checking a System with System File Verification 138

Viruses and Worms 141

Types of Viruses 142

Virus Detection Methods 145

Summary 146

Exam Essentials 146

Review Questions 147

Answers to Review Questions 151

Chapter 6 Gathering Data from Networks: Sniffers 153

Understanding Host-to-Host Communication 154

How a Sniffer Works 158

Sniffing Countermeasures 158

Bypassing the Limitations of Switches 159

How ARP Works 159

ARP Spoofing and Poisoning Countermeasures 160

Wireshark Filters 161

Understanding MAC Flooding and DNS Spoofing 164

Summary 166

Exam Essentials 167

Review Questions 168

Answers to Review Questions 171

Chapter 7 Denial of Service and Session Hijacking 173

Denial of Service 174

How DDoS Attacks Work 177

How BOTs/BOTNETs Work 179

Smurf and SYN Flood Attacks 180

DoS/DDoS Countermeasures 182

Session Hijacking 183

Sequence Prediction 184

Dangers Posed by Session Hijacking 186

Preventing Session Hijacking 186

Summary 187

Exam Essentials 188

Review Questions 189

Answers to Review Questions 193

Chapter 8 Web Hacking: Google, Web Servers, Web Application Vulnerabilities, and Web-Based Password Cracking Techniques 195

How Web Servers Work 197

Types of Web Server Vulnerabilities 198

Attacking a Web Server 201

Patch-Management Techniques 207

Web Server Hardening Methods 208

Web Application Vulnerabilities 209

Web Application Threats and Countermeasures 210

Google Hacking 211

Web-Based Password-Cracking Techniques 212

Authentication Types 212

Password Attacks and Password Cracking 213

Summary 215

Exam Essentials 215

Review Questions 216

Answers to Review Questions 219

Chapter 9 Attacking Applications: SQL Injection and Buffer Overflows 221

SQL Injection 222

Finding a SQL Injection Vulnerability 224

The Purpose of SQL Injection 225

SQL Injection Using Dynamic Strings 226

SQL Injection Countermeasures 228

Buffer Overflows 229

Types of Buffer Overflows and Methods of Detection 229

Buffer Overflow Countermeasures 231

Summary 232

Exam Essentials 232

Review Questions 233

Answers to Review Questions 237

Chapter 10 Wireless Network Hacking 239

Wi-Fi and Ethernet 240

Authentication and Cracking Techniques 242

Using Wireless Sniffers to Locate SSIDs 246

MAC Filters and MAC Spoofing 248

Rogue Access Points 250

Evil Twin or AP Masquerading 250

Wireless Hacking Techniques 251

Securing Wireless Networks 251

Summary 254

Exam Essentials 254

Review Questions 255

Answers to Review Questions 259

Chapter 11 Physical Site Security 261

Components of Physical Security 262

Understanding Physical Security 264

Physical Site Security Countermeasures 266

What to Do After a Security Breach Occurs 274

Summary 274

Exam Essentials 274

Review Questions 275

Answers to Review Questions 279

Chapter 12 Hacking Linux Systems 281

Linux Basics 282

Compiling a Linux Kernel 285

GCC Compilation Commands 288

Installing Linux Kernel Modules 289

Linux Hardening Methods 289

Summary 293

Exam Essentials 294

Review Questions 295

Answers to Review Questions 299

Chapter 13 Bypassing Network Security: Evading IDSs, Honeypots, and Firewalls 301

Types of IDSs and Evasion Techniques 302

Firewall Types and Honeypot Evasion Techniques 308

Summary 316

Exam Essentials 316

Review Questions 317

Answers to Review Questions 322

Chapter 14 Cryptography 323

Cryptography and Encryption Techniques 324

Types of Encryption 326

Stream Ciphers vs. Block Ciphers 328

Generating Public and Private Keys 329

Other Uses for Encryption 333

Cryptography Algorithms 335

Cryptography Attacks 337

Summary 337

Exam Essentials 338

Review Questions 339

Answers to Review Questions 342

Chapter 15 Performing a Penetration Test 343

Defining Security Assessments 344

Penetration Testing 345

Penetration Testing Steps 346

The Pen Test Legal Framework 349

Automated Penetration Testing Tools 349

Pen Test Deliverables 350

Summary 352

Exam Essentials 352

Review Questions 353

Answers to Review Questions 357

Appendix About the Companion CD 359

What You’ll Find on the CD 360

Sybex Test Engine 360

PDF of Glossary of Terms 360

Adobe Reader 360

Electronic Flashcards 360

System Requirements 361

Using the CD 361

Troubleshooting 361

Customer Care 362

Glossary 363

Index 375

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Author Information

Kimberly Graves, CEH, CWSP, CWNP, CWNA, has over 15 years of IT experience. She is founder of Techsource Network Solutions, a network and security consulting organization located in the Washington, DC area. She has served as subject matter expert for several certification programs-including the Certified Wireless Network Professional (CWNP) and Intel Certified Network Engineer programs-and has developed course materials for the Department of Veteran Affairs, USAF, and the NSA.

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