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Appreciative Inquiry: Change at the Speed of Imagination, 2nd Edition

ISBN: 978-0-470-52797-9
336 pages
April 2011, ©2011, Pfeiffer
Appreciative Inquiry: Change at the Speed of Imagination, 2nd Edition (0470527978) cover image
Thoroughly revised and updated, the second edition of Appreciative Inquiry offers OD and HR professionals a user-friendly resource for discovering how they can tap into the power of the Appreciative Inquiry (AI) process. An innovative process, AI is an effective way to work with a company as an organic system whose success depends on a holistic approach to connect that organization's human, technical, and organizational functions.

This new edition meets the challenge of making the AI process accessible and updates three key areas of the process: the theoretical basis, fundamental assumptions and beliefs, and the basic processes. It includes step-by-step guidelines on how to apply AI in a variety of organizational situations and shows how it can be used with a wide range of initiatives, such as coaching, leadership development, strategic planning, and teambuilding.

"If there's one book to read on AI, this is it. It provides the context and rationale for this paradigm changing approach to change at any level of system. Buy it, read it, use it and enjoy achieving great results and renewed energy and enthusiasm."
Barbara Sloan, director, Organizational Development and Learning, New York University, Langone Medical Center

"Appreciative Inquiry brings the freedom and creativity of AI together with the 'nuts and bolts' of how to actually do it all. It contains everything I would want to have as a fresh practitioner, from potential designs to sample questions and excellent Case Stories."
David Shaked, founder and CEO, Almond Insight, United Kingdom

"This book serves as a complete roadmap for those interested in the philosophy and practice of Appreciative Inquiry. The Case Stories encourage readers to find their own way on the journey by providing examples of successful interventions."
Terry Egan, professor, Management Studies, Pepperdine University

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Chart of Case Stories xiii

CHAPTER 1: The Case for a New Approach to Change 1

The Emerging Paradigm 9

The New Sciences 12

Thinking About Problems Using the New Paradigm 16

CHAPTER 2: Appreciative Inquiry: History, Theory, and Practice 21

Defining Appreciative Inquiry 22

A History of Appreciative Inquiry 23

AI and the Field of Organization Development 31

The Relevance of AI to Complex, Transformative Change 33

AI and the Challenge of Organization Transformation 34

Complex Change and the Two Gifts of Appreciative Inquiry 36

The Theoretical Basis for Appreciative Inquiry 38

Social Constructionism 38

The Power of Image 42

Social Constructionism + The Power of Image = Appreciative Inquiry in Organization Change 47

What Good Are Positive Emotions? 48

Case Story: Living Well with Dementia: Creating a Regional Strategy for the East Midlands, by Julie Barnes and Jill Guild 50

CHAPTER 3: Appreciative Inquiry as a Perspective for Organization Change 67

The "DNA" of Appreciative Inquiry 68

The Core Principles of AI 71

Are Principles Important? 71

The Five Original Principles Plus Wholeness 72

The Five Generic Core Processes for Guiding AI-Based Change 82

Multiple Models of the Five Generic Core Processes of AI 83

The Original Cooperrider/Srivastva Model 83

The GEM Initiative Four-D Model 85

A Fifth D 86

The Mohr/Jacobsgaard Four “I” Model 89

Skills and Knowledge Needed to Lead AI Processes 92

Case Story: Using the SOAR Framework at Aerospace Alliant International (AAI), by Jacqueline M. Stavros 99

Case Story: The Results of Appreciative Management by a Corporate Manager, by Daniel Saint 108

CHAPTER 4: Choose the Positive as the Focus of Inquiry (Defi ne) 111

Define: Focusing on the Positive 111

Raising the Choice Point 113

Explaining and Demonstrating 116

Identifying the Focus for Inquiry 121

Case Story: AI Stories from a Training and Technical Assistance Center (T/TAC): New Possibilities for Improving Outcomes for Students with Disabilities, by Denyse Doerries, Donni Davis-Perry, and Lori Korinek 129

Case Story: From Defi cits to Strengths: Six Sigma from the AI Perspective, by David Shaked 139

CHAPTER 5: Inquire into Stories of What Gives Life in the System (Discover) 145

Rationale for the Use of Stories 146

A Preparation Workshop to Develop the Customized Interview Protocol and Decide on an Inquiry Process 148

Step 1: Select a Core Group and Possibly a Steering Team 150

Step 2: Orient Participants to the Goals of the Workshop and to Their Role in Meeting the Goals 151

Step 3: Quickly Get Participants into an Experience of AI 154

Step 4: Debrief the Mini-AI Experience 157

Step 5: Share Highlights of the Interviews and Select Topics for Further Inquiry 157

Step 6: Create Questions to Be Added to the Four Generic Questions 160

Step 7: Develop the Inquiry Process 166

Interviewer Training 171

Conclusion 173

Case Story: Appreciative Living: Using AI in Daily Life, by Jacqueline Kelm 175

Case Story: Appreciative Life Coaching, by Bob Tschannen-Moran 184

CHAPTER 6: Locate Themes That Appear in the Stories (Discover) 191

Identifying Themes 193

Example of the Themes 193

A Process for Selecting Themes 198

Expanding the Dialogue 201

Case Story: Appreciative Inquiry at Los Angeles Universal Preschool (LAUP): The LAUP/UDEM Dream Team, by Terri Egan, Nancy Westrup Villarreal, and Daphne Deporres 203

CHAPTER 7: Create Shared Images for a Preferred Future (Dream) 213

Articulating the Dream of an Organization’s Future 214

Examples of Ways to Facilitate Creation of Shared Images 217

Provocative Propositions 218

Case Story: Advancing the Safety and Quality of Care in the Emergency Department Over Time: A Story with Three Acts, by Nancy Shendell-Falik, Amy Doran, and Bernard J. Mohr 223

Case Story: Appreciative Inquiry with a Search Committee, by Liz Workman 234

CHAPTER 8: Innovate Ways to Create That Preferred Future (Deliver) 237

Organization Design Processes 241

The Individual Action Approach 241

The Whole System Design Approach 242

A Design Framework: The ABC Model 242

Assumptions of the Organization Inquiry Model 244

How to Use the Organization Inquiry Model 247

Case Story: Building Momentum for Sustainable Changes in Education: Toronto District School Board, by Sue Derby, Maureen McKenna, Karen Leckie, and Nancy Nightingale 259

Case Story: Introducing Appreciative Inquiry into a Community Network Project in Liverpool, England, by Tim Slack and Phil Taylor 266

CHAPTER 9: Valuation 275

Classical Evaluation 275

Evaluation from Appreciative Inquiry Perspective 276

Learnings, Innovations, and Reaffi rmations from This Case 279

Evaluation as an Integral Part of Any AI Process 281

Case Story: Valuation of the Effectiveness of AI for the Zambia Police Services Victim Support Unit, by Mette Jacobsgaard 283

References and Bibliography 295

About the Authors 301

Index 307

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Jane Magruder Watkins is a past chair of the board of the NTL Institute for Applied Behavioral Science and a founding member of Appreciative Inquiry Consulting. She has more than thirty-five years in the field of organization development and has worked with a wide range of private, public, and government organizations, including Avon, GTE, Detroit Edison, SmithKline Beecham, ScottishPower, and more than 200 international organizations in nearly 50 countries.

Bernard J. Mohr is the author of many books and articles on collaborative organization innovation and design. One of the original pioneers in the field of Appreciative Inquiry, Bernard co-founded Innovation Partners International and co-created the NTL Institute Certificate in Appreciative Inquiry.

Ralph Kelly is a co-founder of Appreciative Inquiry Unlimited, a founding member of Appreciative Inquiry Consulting, and an Associate in the Taos Institute. He has over 35 years experience in the field of OD, and has worked with a rich variety of non-profit, faith-centered, government, private and academic organizations in over 40 countries.

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