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Textbook

Principles of Turbomachinery

ISBN: 978-0-470-53672-8
480 pages
November 2011, ©2011
Principles of Turbomachinery (0470536721) cover image
The text is based on a course on turbomachinery which the author has taught since year 2000 as a technical elective. Topics include; Energy Transfer in Turbomachines, Gas and Steam Turbines, and Hydraulic Turbines. New material on wind turbines, and three-dimensional effects in axial turbomachines is included. The level is kept as such that students can smoothly move from a study of the most successful books in thermodynamics, fluid dynamics, and heat transfer to the subject of turbomachinery. The chapters are organized in such a way that the more difficult material is left to the later sections of each chapter. Thus, depending on the level of the students, instructors can tailor their course by omitting some sections.

Key features:

  • Combines theory and applications to show how gas turbines, pumps and compressor function

  • Allows for a smooth transition from the study of thermodynamics, fluid dynamics, and heat transfer to the subject of turbomachinery for students and professionals

  • Relates turbomachinery to new areas such as wind power and three-dimensional effects in axial turbomachines
  • Provides information on several types of turbomachinery rather than concentrating specifically on one type such as centrifugal compressors
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Foreword xiii

Acknowledgments xv

1. Introduction 1

1.1 Energy and fluid machines 1

1.2 Historical survey 7

2. Principles of Thermodynamics and Fluid Flow 15

2.1 Mass conservation principle 15

2.2 First law of thermodynamics 17

2.3 Second law of thermodynamics 19

2.4 Equations of state 20

2.5 Efficiency 36

2.6 Momentum balance 47

3. Compressible Flow through Nozzles 57

3.1 Mach number and the speed sound 57

3.2 Isentropic flow with area change 61

3.3 Normal shocks 69

3.4 Influence of friction in flow through straight nozzles 75

3.5 Supersaturation 90

3.6 Prandtl-Meyer expansion 92

3.7 Flow leaving a turbine theory 100

4. Principles of Turbomachine Analysis 105

4.1 Velocity triangles 106

4.2 Moment of momentum balance 108

4.3 Energy transfer in turbomachines 109

4.4 Utilization 116

4.5 Scaling and similitude 124

4.6 Performance characteristics 130

5. Stream Turbines 135

5.1 Introduction 135

5.2 Impulse turbines 137

5.3 Stage with zero reaction 158

5.4 Loss coefficients 160

6. Axial Turbines 165

6.1 Introduction 165

6.2 Turbine stage analysis 167

6.3 Flow and loading coefficients and reaction ratio 171

6.4 Three-dimensional flow 181

6.5 Radial equilibrium 181

6.6 Constant mass flux 187

6.7 Turbine efficiency and losses 190

6.8 Multistage turbine 214

7. Axial Compressors 221

7.1 Compressor stage analysis 222

7.2 Design deflection 230

7.3 Radial equilibrium 235

7.4 Diffusion factor 242

7.5 Efficiency and losses 247

7.6 Cascade aerodynamics 252

8. Centrifugal Compressors and Pumps 265

8.1 Compressor analysis 266

8.2 Inlet design 274

8.3 Exit design 281

8.4 Vaneless diffuser 285

8.5 Centrifugal pumps 290

8.6 Fans 302

8.7 Cavitation 305

8.8 Diffuser and volute design 305

9. Radial Inflow Turbines 313

9.1 Turbine analysis 314

9.2 Efficiency 319

9.3 Specific speed and specific diameter 323

9.4 Stator flow 329

9.5 Design of the inlet of a radial inflow turbine 337

9.6 Design of the Exit 346

10. Hydraulic Turbines 359

10.1 Hydroelectric Power Plants 359

10.2 Hydraulic turbines and their specific speed 361

10.3 Pelton wheel 363

10.4 Francis turbine 370

10.5 Kaplan turbine 377

10.6 Cavitation 380

11. Hydraulic Transmission of Power 385

11.1 Fluid couplings 385

11.2 Torque converters 391

12. Wind turbines 401

12.1 Horizontal-axis wind turbine 402

12.2 Momentum and blade element theory of wind turbines 403

12.3 Blade Forces 415

12.4 Turbomachinery and future prospects for energy 429

Appendix A. Streamline curvature and radial equilibrium 431

Appendix B. Thermodynamic Tables 437

References 449

Index 453 

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Seppo A. Korpela has taught in the mechanical engineering department of The Ohio State University since 1972. Over the years he has been engaged in research in thermal sciences and engineering. This work has resulted in over fifty journal publications. He has also been engaged in research and writing on the world's energy resources.
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