Graphics for Learning: Proven Guidelines for Planning, Designing, and Evaluating Visuals in Training Materials, 2nd Edition
November 2010, Pfeiffer
Praise for the First Edition
"For years I've been looking for a book that links cognitive
research on learning to graphics and instructional design. Here it
is! Ruth Clark and Chopeta Lyons not only explain how to make
graphics work—they've created a very interesting read, full
of useful guidelines and examples."
—Lynn Kearny, CPT, instructional designer and graphic communicator, Graphic Tools for Thinking and Learning
"Finally! A book that integrates visual design into the larger
context of instructional design and development."
—Linda Lohr, Ed.D., author, Creating Graphics for Learning and assistant professor, University of Northern Colorado
Foreword to the Second Edition.
Introduction: Getting the Most from This Resource.
Section One: The Foundation.
Chapter 1. The Power of Visuals.
The Unrealized Potential of Visuals.
What Is a Graphic?
Which Visuals Are Best? No Yellow Brick Road.
Graphics in the Instructional Landscape.
Chapter 2. Three Views of Instructional Visuals.
Three Views of Visuals.
Communication Functions of Graphics.
Graphics to Support Psychological Events of Learning.
Our Guiding Principles.
Chapter 3. A Visual Design Model for Planning Graphics Systematically.
Three Facets of Graphics.
What Can Happen Without a Systematic Approach.
What Happens When Instructional Designers Follow a Systematic Process.
A Visual Design Model.
Section Two. How to Use Visuals to Support Psychological Learning Processes.
Chapter 4. Graphics and Learning.
Not All Graphics Are Equal.
Graphics and Learning.
A Tale of Two Memories.
Unique Brain Storage for Visual Information.
How Learning Happens.
How Graphics Promote Learning.
Chapter 5. Plan Graphics That Direct Attention.
Attention, Learning, and Graphics.
Guideline 1: Use Signals to Focus Attention.
Guideline 2: Use Color and Contrast to Focus Attention.
Guideline 3: Use Motion Cues in Animation.
Guideline 4: Use Color to Improve Job Performance.
Graphics and Divided Attention.
Guideline 5: Place Text Close to the Visuals It Describes.
Guideline 6: Avoid Distracting Visuals.
Chapter 6. Plan Visuals That Leverage Prior Knowledge.
Prior Knowledge, Learning, and Graphics.
Guideline 1: Use Comparative Advance Organizers.
Guideline 2: Use Expository Advance Organizers.
Guideline 3: Avoid Seductive Details in Lesson Introductions.
Chapter 7. Plan Graphics That Minimize Irrelevant Mental Load.
What Is Mental Load?
Guideline 1: Use Graphics Rather Than Text for Special Content.
Guideline 2: Use Simpler Graphics for Deeper Learning.
Guideline 3: Use Animations to Teach Hands-On Skills.
Guideline 4: Explain Complex Graphics with Words in Audio.
Guideline 5: Use Words or Graphics Alone When Information Is Self-Explanatory.
Guideline 6: Use Previews and Overlays with Complex Visuals.
Chapter 8. Plan Graphics to Help Learners Build Mental Models.
Mental Modeling, Learning, and Graphics.
Guideline 1: Use Organizational Graphics to Show Quantitative Relationships.
Guideline 2: Use Charts and Graphs to Communicate Quantitative Relationships.
Guideline 3: Use Transformational Visuals to Communicate Changes in Time or Space.
Guideline 4: Use Interpretive Visuals to Communicate Abstract Cause-and-Effect. Relationships.
Use Animated Online Agents to Model Thinking Processes.
Chapter 9. Plan Graphics That Support Transfer of Learning.
Transfer and Work Performance.
Near- Versus Far-Transfer Tasks.
Context Is King for Near-Transfer Tasks.
Guideline 1: Use Dynamic Visuals That Reflect Workplace Context for Procedures.
Guideline 2: Incorporate Workplace Context in 3D Worlds.
Mental Models Are King in Far-Transfer Tasks.
Guideline 3: Use Static Visuals to Illustrate How Things Work.
Guideline 4: Use Dynamic Visuals for Interpersonal Skills.
Guideline 5: Use Varied Context Visual Examples for Deeper Understanding.
Guideline 6: Use Workplace Context Visuals for Immersive Learning Environments.
Chapter 10. Plan Graphics for Motivation and Learning.
Motivation and Learning.
Interest and Motivation.
Guideline 1: Use Dynamic Visuals That Display Work Concepts.
Guideline 2: Leverage Social Presence Through Learning Agents in Asynchronous Multimedia.
Guideline 3: Consider Using Relevant Trigger Visuals to Catch Initial Interest.
Guideline 4: Minimize Graphics Used Soley as Eye Candy.
Chapter 11. Plan Graphics to Leverage Learner Differences.
Different Strokes for Different Folks?
Guideline 1: Drop the Myth of Visual Learning Style.
Guideline 2: Emphasize Visuals for Beginners.
Guideline 3: Provide Just-in-Time Training to Help Learners Interpret Complex Visuals.
Guideline 4: Encourage All Learners to Process Visuals Effectively.
Section Three. How to Visualize Lesson Content.
Chapter 12. How to Visualize Procedures.
What Are Procedures?
Guideline 1: Combine Representational and Transformational Visuals in Demonstrations.
Guideline 2: Demonstrate Procedures with Dynamic Visuals.
Guideline 3: Manage Mental Load.
Guideline 4: Use Visuals to Draw Attention to Warnings.
Guideline 5: Design Online Practice Exercises Effectively.
Chapter 13. How to Visualize Concepts.
What Are Concepts?
How to Visualize Concepts.
Guideline 1: Display Teaching Methods in a Contiguous Manner.
Guideline 2: Create Visual Counterexamples.
Guideline 3: Use Visual Analogies.
Guideline 4: Display Related Concepts Together.
Guideline 5: Use organizational Visuals for Related Concepts.
Guideline 6: Promote Learner Engagement with Concept Visuals.
Chapter 14. How to Visualize Facts.
What Are Facts?
How to Help Learners to Visualize Facts.
Guideline 1: Use Representational Visuals Displayed in Job Context.
Guideline 2: Display Facts with Visual Contiguity.
Guideline 3: Use Organizational Visuals.
Guideline 4: Use Relational Visuals for Numeric Trends.
Guideline 5: Promote Engagement with Important Factual Visuals.
Chapter 15. How to Visualize Processes.
What Are Processes?
Who Needs Process Knowledge?
How to Help Learners to Visualize Processes.
Guideline 1: Use Transformational Visuals That Show State Changes.
Guideline 2: Use Simpler Visuals to Promote Understanding.
Guideline 3: Manage Load When Presenting Process Visuals.
Guideline 4: Use Interpretive Visuals to Represent Abstract Processes.
Guideline 5: Promote Engagement with Process Visuals.
Chapter 16. How to Visualize Principles.
What Are Principles?
What Are Principles?
Problem-Centered Learning Environments.
Components of Problem-Centered Learning Environments.
When to Consider Problem-Centered Learning.
Inductive Learning from Case Examples.
Teaching Principles as Laws or Theories.
How to Visualize Principles.
Guideline 1: Use Representational Visuals for Problem-Centered Learning Components.
Guideline 2: Use Multimedia Dynamic Visuals for Case Scenarios.
Guideline 3: Use Animated Agents to Model Critical Thinking Skills.
Guideline 4: Use Graphic Design Devices to Manage Mental Load During Problem-Centered Learning.
Guideline 5: Analyze Video or Audio Recorded Work Samples.
Guideline 6: Engage Learners with Explanatory Visuals, Including Virtual Simulations.
Section Four. How to Plan and Communicate Your Visuals.
Chapter 17. Determine the Context.
The Realities of the Workplace.
What to Decide and When.
Assess the Learning Landscape.
Chapter 18. Design Your Visual Approach.
Getting the Right Artist.
Designing the Visual Approach.
What to Consider.
Rough It Out—Style and Available Real Estate.
A Semi-Fictional Case Study.
Chapter 19. Visualize Individual Graphics.
Creating Individual Visuals That Work.
A Case Study Continued: Sanji's Graphic.
Chapter 20. Communicate and Lay Out Graphic Plans.
Who Needs to Know.
Communicating the Visual Approach, the “Look and Feel”.
Communicating Ideas for the Development of Individual Graphics.
Communicating Layout Plans.
Communicating Graphics to Production Staff.
Case Study: Sanji Talks to the Artist.
Chapter 21. Apply the Principles.
The End-User System Application Training.
The Investment Club's Financial Basics Training.
About the Authors.
List of Figures and Tables.
Chopeta Lyons has created award-winning print and online learning products during her twenty-five years of developing training solutions. She has directed teams of designers, writers, programmers, audio talent, graphic designers, and artists to create custom solutions for the training needs of numerous corporations and organizations. She is the author of several articles on e-learning and a college textbook, Discover Writing.
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