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CliffsAP European History, 2nd Edition

ISBN: 978-0-470-55099-1
408 pages
August 2010
CliffsAP European History, 2nd Edition (0470550996) cover image
Your complete guide to a higher score on the *AP European History exam

About the book:

Introduction

  • Reviews of the AP exam format and scoring

  • Proven strategies for answering multiple-choice questions

  • Hints for tackling the essay questions

  • FAQs

Part I: Subject Area Reviews

  • Covers all subject areas you'll be tested on

    • Intellectual and cultural history

    • Political and diplomatic history

    • Social and economic history

  • Includes sample questions and answers for each subject

Part II: AP European History Practice Exams

  • 3 full-length practice exams with answers and complete explanations

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Study Guide Checklist.

Introducing the AP European History Examination.

What Is the Advanced Placement Program?

Themes of the AP European History Course.

Intellectual and Cultural History.

Political and Diplomatic History.

Social and Economic History.

The AP European History Exam Format.

The AP European History Exam’s Scoring Procedure.

Section I.

Section II (Free-Response Section).

AP Grades.

How to Use this Book.

Preparing for the Examination.

Helpful Hints for Studying for the AP European History Examination.

Types of Multiple-Choice Questions.

Identification Questions.

Analysis Questions.

Reading/Quotation Questions.

Skill-Based Questions (Maps, Graphs, and Charts).

Illustration-Type Questions (Political Cartoons, Posters, Photographs, Works of Art, and Sculpture).

“Except”-Type Questions.

Hints and Strategies for Mastering the Multiple-Choice Questions.

The Free-Response Section.

Strategies for Writing the Essays.

Part A: Document-Based Question (DBQ).

Scoring the DBQ.

A Practice DBQ.

Analysis of the DBQ Question and Documents.

First Student DBQ Essay.

Reader’s Comments on the First Student DBQ Essay.

Second Student DBQ Essay.

Reader’s Comments on the Second Student DBQ Essay.

Part B: The Thematic Essay.

Topics of Thematic Essays.

A Practice Thematic Essay.

Some Frequently Asked Questions about the AP European History Exam.

How to Make Effective Use of this Book.

PART I: SUBJECT AREA REVIEWS WITH SAMPLE QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS.

The Renaissance (c. 1350–c. 1550).

Italian Renaissance.

The Italian City-States.

Florence: The Symbol of the Renaissance.

Humanism and Society.

Humanism and Women.

Spreading Humanism.

Northern Renaissance.

Politics of the Renaissance.

Italy.

France.

England.

Spain.

Artistic Achievements of the Renaissance.

Chronology of the Renaissance.

Sample Multiple-Choice Questions.

Multiple-Choice Questions: Answers and Explanations.

The Reformation (1517–1640).

Background of the Protestant Reformation.

Protestant Leaders.

Martin Luther.

Ulrich Zwingli.

John Calvin.

Women in Protestantism.

The English Reformation (1517–1640).

The Catholic Reformation.

Religious Wars and Revolts.

War in Germany.

Dutch Revolt against Spain.

Civil War in France.

Thirty Years’ War (1618–1648).

Chronology of the Reformation.

Sample Multiple-Choice Questions.

Multiple-Choice Questions: Answers and Explanations.

The Age of Discovery and the Rise of Absolutism and Constitutionalism (1400–1700).

The Age of Discovery.

The Rise of Absolutism in France.

The Rise of Constitutionalism in England.

The Tudors.

The Stuart Monarchs.

Highlights of the English Civil War (1642–1649).

Phase I (1642–1646).

Phase II (1646–1649).

The Stuart Restoration (1660–1688).

The Glorious Revolution.

The Golden Age of Spain and Its Decline.

Chronology of the Age of Discovery and the Rise of Absolutism and Constitutionalism.

Sample Multiple-Choice Questions.

Multiple-Choice Questions: Answers and Explanations.

The Scientific Revolution and the Enlightenment (1500–1780).

The Scientific Revolution.

The Enlightenment.

Women and the Enlightenment.

Enlightened Despotism.

Chronology of the Scientific Revolution and the Enlightenment.

Sample Multiple-Choice Questions.

Multiple-Choice Questions: Answers and Explanations.

The Age of Revolution: The French Revolution and Napoleonic Era.

The French Revolution.

France under the Old Regime.

The Meeting of the Estates General and Creation of the National Assembly.

The Moderate Stage (1789–1792).

The Radical Stage (1792–1795).

The Reign of Terror (1793–1794).

The Reactionary Stage (1795–1799).

The Napoleonic Era (1799–1815).

Napoleon Dominates Europe.

The Congress of Vienna (1814–1815).

Chronology of the French Revolution.

Sample Multiple-Choice Questions.

Multiple-Choice Questions: Answers and Explanations.

Mercantilism and the Agricultural and Industrial Revolutions.

Mercantilism and Capitalism.

The Agricultural Revolution.

The Industrial Revolution.

Results of the Industrial Revolution.

Chronology of the Agricultural and Industrial Revolutions.

Sample Multiple-Choice Questions.

Multiple-Choice Questions: Answers and Explanations.

The Struggle for Democracy in Nineteenth-Century Europe (1815–1914).

The Age of Metternich (1815–1848).

The Revolutions of the 1820s.

The Revolutions of the 1830s.

The Revolutions of 1848 and Their Aftermath.

France.

The Boulanger Affair (1887–1889).

The Dreyfus Affair (1894–1906).

The Austrian Empire.

Prussia.

Russia.

Britain: Democracy through Evolution.

Chronology of the Struggle for Democracy in Nineteenth-Century Europe (1815–1914).

Sample Multiple-Choice Questions.

Multiple-Choice Questions: Answers and Explanations.

The Age of Nationalism in Europe.

Unification of Italy.

Italian Nationalists.

Steps to Italian Unity.

Unification of Germany.

German Nationalists.

Steps to German Unification.

The Rise of Prussian Military Power.

The Danish War (1864).

Austro-Prussian War (1866).

Franco-Prussian War (1870–1871).

German Empire.

Crisis in the Multinational Empires.

The Austrian-Hungarian Empire.

The Ottoman Empire.

Chronology of the Age of Nationalism in Europe.

Sample Multiple-Choice Questions.

Multiple-Choice Questions: Answers and Explanations.

The Age of Imperialism (1870–1914).

Old Imperialism.

New Imperialism.

Economic Reasons.

Military and Political Reasons.

Humanitarian and Religious Goals.

Social Darwinism.

Western Technology.

Imperialism in Africa.

Suez Canal.

Exploration of the Congo.

The Scramble for Africa.

France.

Great Britain.

Germany.

Italy.

Portugal.

Imperialism in Asia.

India.

China.

Japan.

Imperialism in the Middle East.

Consequences of Imperialism.

European Society at the Turn of the Century.

Changes in the Arts/Literature.

Realism.

Impressionism.

Postimpressionism/Expressionism.

New Ideas in Medicine and Science.

Women and the Struggle for Voting.

Chronology of the Age of Imperialism.

Sample Multiple-Choice Questions.

Multiple-Choice Questions: Answers and Explanations.

World War I (1914–1918).

The Underlying Causes of World War I.

The Alliance System.

Nationalism.

Economics.

Imperialism.

Militarism.

International Crises.

The Immediate Cause of World War I.

The Course of the War.

German Strategy.

Western Front.

Eastern Front.

Southern Front.

War in the Colonies and at Sea.

New Ways of Waging War.

War on the Home Front.

Concluding the War.

The Treaty of Versailles.

Provisions of the Versailles Treaty.

Impact of the War.

Chronology of World War I.

Sample Multiple-Choice Questions.

Multiple-Choice Questions: Answers and Explanations.

Europe in Crisis (1917–1939).

The Russian Revolution.

Russo-Japanese War (1904–1905).

Russian Revolution of 1905.

World War I.

The March and November Revolutions.

Soviet Russia from 1918 to 1928.

Civil War in Russia (1918–1921).

Russia's New Economic Policy.

The Rise of Stalin.

Western Democracies (1920–1929).

Empire Affairs.

France (1919–1929).

A Culture in Conflict.

Physics.

Psychology.

Philosophy.

The New Literature.

Rebellion in Art /Music.

Architecture.

Mass Media.

The Great Depression.

Great Britain.

France.

The Rise of Totalitarianism.

Failure of Appeasement.

Chronology of Europe in Crisis.

Sample Multiple-Choice Questions.

Multiple-Choice Questions: Answers and Explanations.

World War II (1939–1945).

Outbreak of World War II (1939–1941).

Hitler's Empire.

Poland.

October 1939–March 1940.

Conquest of Denmark and Norway.

Defeat of France (1940).

Battle of Britain.

Critical Turning Points in the War.

Invasion of Russia.

Entry of the United States.

The Road to Victory (1942–1945).

The Holocaust.

Impact of World War II.

Chronology of World War II.

Sample Multiple-Choice Questions.

Multiple-Choice Questions: Answers and Explanations.

The Cold War (1947–1980).

The Cold War and Communism after World War II.

Greece and Turkey.

Berlin Blockade (1948–1949) and the Two Germanys.

North Atlantic Treaty Organization (1949).

Birth of the Nuclear Race.

Victory in China.

Korean War (1950–1953).

Death of Stalin/De-Stalinization.

Uprisings in Poland and Hungary (1956).

U-2 Incident/Summit Meeting.

Berlin Wall.

Cuban Missile Crisis.

The Brezhnev Era (1964–1982).

Brezhnev Doctrine (1968).

Détente.

Political and Economic Recovery in Europe.

West Germany.

Great Britain.

France.

Italy.

The End of Colonialism.

Chronology of the Cold War.

Sample Multiple-Choice Questions.

Multiple-Choice Questions: Answers and Explanations.

Contemporary Europe.

The Collapse of Communism in the Soviet Union and Eastern Europe.

Ethnic Tensions in Eastern Europe.

Recent Political Changes.

Germany.

Great Britain.

France.

Italy.

Economic and Social Changes.

Lifestyle Changes.

Demographic Changes.

Chronology of Contemporary Europe.

Sample Multiple-Choice Questions.

Multiple-Choice Questions: Answers and Explanations.

PART II: AP EUROPEAN HISTORY PRACTICE EXAMS.

Sample Practice Exam I.

Answer Sheet for Sample Practice Exam I.

Section I: Multiple-Choice Questions.

Section II: Part A—Document-Based Questions.

Section II: Part B—Thematic Essays.

Answer Key for Practice Exam I.

Section I: Multiple-Choice Questions.

Section II: Free-Response Essays.

Answers and Explanations for Practice Exam I.

Section I: Multiple-Choice Questions.

Section II: Free-Response Essays.

Sample Practice Exam II.

Answer Sheet for Sample Practice Exam II.

Section I: Multiple-Choice Questions.

Section II: Part A—Document-Based Questions.

Section II: Part B—Thematic Essays.

Answer Key for Practice Exam II.

Section I: Multiple-Choice Questions.

Section II: Free-Response Essays.

Answers and Explanations for Practice Exam II.

Section I: Multiple-Choice Questions.

Section II: Free-Response Essays.

Sample Practice Exam III.

Answer Sheet for Sample Practice Exam III.

Section I: Multiple-Choice Questions.

Section II: Free-Response Essays.

Part A: First Sample Student DBQ Essay.

Section II: Part B—Thematic Essays.

Answer Key for Practice Exam III.

Section I: Multiple-Choice Questions.

Section II: Free-Response Essays.

Answers and Explanations for Practice Exam III.

Section I: Multiple-Choice Questions.

Section II: Free-Response Essays.

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Michael J. Romano, Ph.D., is an adjunct history professor at various New York colleges and has been an educator and supervisor of social studies in New York State. Dr. Romano is also a lecturer at community organizations.
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