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Computed Tomography Principles, Design, Artifacts, and Recent Advances

ISBN: 978-0-470-56353-3
510 pages
July 2009
Computed Tomography Principles, Design, Artifacts, and Recent Advances (0470563532) cover image
Six years after its first edition, Computed Tomography: Principles, Design, Artifacts, and Recent Advances, Second Edition provides and updated overview of the evolution of CT, the mathematical and physical aspects of the technology, and the fundamentals of image reconstruction algorithms. Given the high visibility and public awareness of the impact of x-ray radiation, the second edition features a new chapter on x-ray dose and presents different dose reduction techniques ranging from patient handling, optimal data acquisition, image reconstruction, and postprocess. Based on the advancements over the past six years, the second edition includes new sections on cone beam reconstruction algorithms, nonconventional helical acquisition and reconstruction, new reconstruction approaches, and dual-energy CT. Finally, new to this edition is a set of problems for each chapter, providing opportunities to enhance reader comprehension and practice the application of covered material.
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Preface.

Nomenclature and Abbreviations.

1. Introduction.

1.1 Conventional X-ray Tomography.

1.2 History of Computed Tomography.

1.3 Different Generations of CT Scanners.

1.4 Problems.

References.

2. Preliminaries.

2.1 Mathematics Fundamentals.

2.2 Fundamentals of X-ray Physics.

2.3 Measurement of Line Integrals and Data Conditioning.

2.4 Sampling Geometry and Sinogram.

2.5 Problems.

References.

3. Image Reconstruction.

3.1 Introduction.

3.2 Several Approaches to Image Reconstruction.

3.3 The Fourier Slice Theorem.

3.4 The Filtered Backprojection Algorithm.

3.5 Fan-Beam Reconstruction.

3.6 Iterative Reconstruction.

3.7 Problems.

References.

4. Image Presentation.

4.1 CT Image Display.

4.2 Volume Visualization.

4.3 Impact of Visualization Tools.

4.4 Problems.

References.

5. Key Performance Parameters of the CT Scanner.

5.1 High-Contrast Spatial Resolution.

5.2 Low-Contrast Resolution.

5.3 Temporal Resolution.

5.4 CT Number Accuracy and Noise.

5.5 Performance of the Scanogram.

5.6 Problems.

References.

6. Major Components of the CT Scanner.

6.1 System Overview.

6.2 The X-ray Tube and High-Voltage Generator.

6.3 The X-ray Detector and Data-Acquisition Electronics.

6.4 The Gantry and Slip Ring.

6.5 Collimation and Filtration.

6.6 The Reconstruction Engine.

6.7 Problems.

References.

7. Image Artifacts: Appearances, Causes, and Corrections.

7.1 What Is an Image Artifact?

7.2 Different Appearances of Image Artifacts.

7.3 Artifacts Related to System Design.

7.4 Artifacts Related to X-ray Tubes.

7.5 Detector-induced Artifacts.

7.6 Patient-induced Artifacts.

7.7 Operator-induced Artifacts.

7.8 Problems.

References.

8. Computer Simulation Analysis.

8.1 What Is Computer Simulation?

8.2 Simulation Overview.

8.3 Simulation of Optics.

8.4 Computer Simulation of Physics-related Performance.

8.5 Problems.

References.

9. Helical or Spiral CT.

9.1 Introduction.

9.2 Terminology and Reconstruction.

9.3 Slice Sensitivity Profile and Noise.

9.4 Helically Related Image Artifacts.

9.5 Problems.

References.

10. Miltislice CT.

10.1 The Need for Multislice CT.

10.2 Detector Configurations of Multislice CT.

10.3 Nonhelical Mode of Reconstruction.

10.4 Multislice Helical Reconstruction.

10.5 Multislice Artifacts.

10.6 Problems.

References.

11. X-ray Radiation and Dose-Reduction Techniques.

11.1 Biological Effects of X-ray Radiation.

11.2 Measurement of X-ray dose.

11.3 Methodologies for Dose Reduction.

11.4 Problems.

References.

12. Advanced CT Applications.

12.1 Introduction.

12.2 Cardiac Imaging.

12.3 CT Fluoroscopy.

12.4 CT Perfusion.

12.5 Screening and Quantitative CT.

12.6 Dual-Energy CT.

12.7 Problems.

References.

Glossary.

Index.

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