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Biomechatronic Design in Biotechnology: A Methodology for Development of Biotechnological Products

ISBN: 978-0-470-57334-1
304 pages
September 2011
Biomechatronic Design in Biotechnology: A Methodology for Development of Biotechnological Products (0470573341) cover image

“… a must-read for all modern bio-scientists and engineers working in the field of biotechnology.” – Biotechnology Journal, 2012, 7

 

A cutting-edge guide on the fundamentals, theory, and applications of biomechatronic design principles

Biomechatronic Design in Biotechnology presents a complete methodology of biomechatronics, an emerging variant of the mechatronics field that marries biology, electronics, and mechanics to create products where biological and biochemical, technical, human, management-and-goal, and information systems are combined and integrated in order to solve a mission that fulfills a human need. A biomechatronic product includes a biological, mechanical, and electronic part.

Beginning with an overview of the fundamentals and theory behind biomechatronic technology, this book describes how general engineering design science theory can be applied when designing a technical system where biological species or components are integrated. Some research methods explored include schemes and matrices for analyzing the functionality of the designed products, ranking methods for screening and scoring the best design solutions, and structuring graphical tools for a thorough investigation of the subsystems and sub-functions of products.

This insightful guide also:

  • Discusses tools for creating shorter development times, thereby reducing the need for prototype testing and verification
  • Presents case study-like examples of the technology used such as a surface plasmon resonance sensor and a robotic cell culturing system for human embryonic stem cells
  • Provides an interdisciplinary and unifying approach of the many fields of engineering and biotechnology used in biomechatronic design

By combining designs between traditional electronic and mechanical subsystems and biological systems, this book demonstrates how biotechnology and bioengineering design can utilize and benefit from commonly used design tools— and benefit humanity itself.

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PREFACE xiii

1 Introduction 1

1.1 Scope of Design / 1

1.2 Definition of Biomechatronic Products / 3

1.3 Principles of Biomechatronics / 4

1.4 Brief History of the Development of Biomechatronic Products and Engineering / 7

1.5 Aim of This Book / 9

References / 10

PART I FUNDAMENTALS 13

2 Conceptual Design Theory 15

2.1 Systematic Design / 15

2.1.1 Design for Products / 15

2.1.2 Origin of the Design Task / 18

2.1.3 Development of Design Thinking / 18

2.1.4 Recent Methods / 20

2.2 Basics of Technical Systems / 21

2.2.1 Energy, Material, and Signals and Their Conversion / 22

2.2.2 Interrelationships of Functions / 22

2.2.3 Interrelationship of Constructions / 25

2.2.4 Interrelationship of Systems / 25

2.3 Psychology in the Systematic Approach / 25

2.4 A General Working Methodology / 26

2.4.1 Analysis for Resolving Technical Problems / 27

2.4.2 Abstraction of Interrelationships of Systems / 28

2.4.3 Synthesis of the Technical System / 28

2.5 Conceptual Design / 28

2.6 Abstraction inOrder to Identify Essential Problems / 29

2.7 Developing the Concepts / 31

2.7.1 Organizing the Development Process / 33

2.8 Concluding Remarks / 34

References / 35

3 Biotechnology and Mechatronic Design 37

3.1 Transduction of the Biological Science into Biotechnology / 37

3.2 Biological Sciences and Their Applications / 39

3.3 Biotechnology and Bioengineering / 42

3.4 Applying Mechatronic Theory to Biotechnology: Biomechatronics / 44

3.5 Conclusions / 47

References / 48

4 Methodology for Utilization of Mechatronic Design Tools 49

4.1 Idea of Applying the Mechatronic Design Tools / 49

4.2 Table of User Needs / 51

4.3 List of Target Specifications / 52

4.4 Concept Generation Chart / 52

4.4.1 Basic Concept Component Chart / 53

4.4.2 Permutation Chart / 54

4.5 Concept Screening Matrix / 55

4.6 Concept Scoring Matrix / 56

4.7 Hubka–Eder Mapping / 57

4.7.1 Overview Hubka–Eder Map / 57

4.7.2 Zoom-in Hubka–Eder Mapping / 59

4.8 Functions Interaction Matrix / 60

4.8.1 Functions Interaction Matrix for Systems and Subsystems / 60

4.8.2 Functions Interaction Matrix for Systems and Transformation Process / 61

4.8.3 Design Structure Matrix / 61

4.9 Anatomical Blueprint / 62

4.10 Conclusions / 63

References / 63

PART II APPLICATIONS 65

5 Blood Glucose Sensors 67

5.1 Background of Blood Glucose Analysis / 67

5.2 Specification of Needs for Blood Glucose Analysis / 70

5.3 Design of Blood Glucose Sensors / 71

5.3.1 Generation of Sensor Concepts / 71

5.4 Description of the Systems Involved in the Design Concepts for Glucose Blood Sensors / 76

5.4.1 Biological Systems / 77

5.4.2 Technical Systems / 77

5.4.3 Information Systems / 78

5.4.4 Management and Goal Systems / 78

5.4.5 Human Systems / 79

5.4.6 Active Environment / 79

5.4.7 Interactions Between the Systems and Functions of the Design / 79

5.4.8 Anatomical Blueprints from the Functions Interaction Matrix Analysis / 81

5.5 Conclusions / 82

References / 82

6 Surface Plasmon Resonance Biosensor Devices 85

6.1 Introduction / 85

6.2 Design Requirements on SPR Systems / 88

6.2.1 Needs and Specifications of an SPR Design / 88

6.3 Mechatronic Design Approach of SPR Systems / 89

6.3.1 Generation of Design Alternatives / 89

6.3.2 Hubka–Eder Mapping of the Design Alternatives / 92

6.4 Detailed Design of Critical SPR Subsystems / 99

6.4.1 Design of the Sensor Surface / 100

6.4.2 Design of the Fluidic System / 103

6.5 Conclusions / 109

References / 109

7 A Diagnostic Device for Helicobacter pylori Infection 113

7.1 Diagnostic Principle of Helicobacter Infection / 113

7.2 Mechatronic Analysis of Urea Breath Test Systems / 117

7.2.1 Mission and Specification for a Urea Breath Tests / 117

7.2.2 Generation of UBT Design Concepts / 118

7.2.3 Screening and Scoring of UBT Design Concepts / 119

7.3 Description of the Systems Involved in the Design Concepts for the Urea Breath Tests / 124

7.3.1 Biological Systems Involved / 124

7.3.2 Technical Systems Alternatives / 126

7.3.3 Information Systems (SIS) Required / 127

7.3.4 Management and Goal Systems Required / 127

7.3.5 Human Systems Involved in the Testing / 127

7.3.6 Active Environment That Can Influence / 128

7.4 Aspects of the Design for Efficient Manufacture / 128

7.5 Conclusions / 131

References / 131

8 Microarray Devices 135

8.1 Principles, Methods, and Applications of Microarrays / 135

8.1.1 Principles and Technology / 135

8.1.2 Fabrication Methods / 136

8.1.3 Companies Developing Microarrays / 138

8.1.4 Applications of DNA Microarrays / 139

8.2 Specification of Needs / 141

8.3 Design of Microarrays / 142

8.3.1 Generation of cDNA Microarray Concepts / 142

8.4 Description of the Systems Involved in the Design Concepts / 145

8.4.1 Biological Systems / 146

8.4.2 Technical Systems / 147

8.4.3 Information System / 147

8.4.4 Management and Goal Systems and the Human Systems / 147

8.4.5 Active Environment / 147

8.4.6 Interaction Analysis / 148

8.5 Conclusions / 149

References / 149

9 Microbial and Cellular Bioreactors 153

9.1 Bioreactor Development During the 1970s–1990s / 153

9.2 Missions, User Needs, and Specifications for Bioreactors / 158

9.2.1 Design Mission and User Needs / 158

9.2.2 Target Specifications / 158

9.3 Analysis of Systems for Conventional Bioreactors / 161

9.3.1 Biological Systems in the Bioreactor / 161

9.3.2 Technical Systems / 164

9.3.3 Studying the Interactions of the Systems / 166

9.3.4 Penicillin Production in a Metabolically Engineered Penicillium strain (Case 1) / 168

9.3.5 A Bioreactor System Producing a Recombinant Protein in CHO Cell Culture (Case 2) / 171

9.3.6 Information Systems / 173

9.3.7 Management and Goal Systems / 177

9.3.8 Human Systems / 179

9.3.9 Active Environment / 179

9.4 Novel Bioreactor Designs / 180

9.4.1 Microbioreactors / 180

9.4.2 Bioreactors with Immobilized Cells / 183

9.4.3 Bioreactors for Tissue and Stem Cell Cultures / 185

9.4.4 Bioreactors for Plant Cell Cultures / 186

9.5 Conclusions / 187

References / 187

10 Chromatographic Protein Purification 193

10.1 Background of Chromatographic Protein Purification / 193

10.2 Specification of Needs for Protein Purification Systems / 197

10.3 Design of Purification Systems / 199

10.3.1 Generation of Design Alternatives / 199

10.3.2 Screening the Design Alternatives / 201

10.3.3 Analysis of the Generated Alternatives for a Chromatography System / 202

10.3.4 Interactions Between Key Systems and the Transformation Process / 206

10.4 Unit Operation Purification in a FVIII Production Process (Case 1) / 208

10.5 Micropurification System Based on a Multichip Device (Case 2) / 209

10.6 Conclusions / 211

References / 212

11 Stem Cell Manufacturing 215

11.1 State of the Art of Stem Cell Manufacturing / 215

11.2 Needs and Target Specifications for Scaled-Up Stem Cell Manufacturing / 218

11.3 Setting Up an Efficient Manufacturing System by Using Biomechatronic Conceptual Design / 220

11.3.1 Generating Process Alternatives / 220

11.3.2 Hubka–Eder Map for a Human Embryonic Stem Cell Process / 220

11.4 Conclusions / 225

References / 226

12 Bioartificial Organ-Simulating Devices 229

12.1 Introduction / 229

12.2 Design of Bioartificial Organ-Simulation Devices / 232

12.2.1 Needs and Specifications / 232

12.2.2 Evaluation of the Design Concepts / 236

12.3 Analysis of Bioartificial Liver Systems / 239

12.3.1 Biological Systems / 239

12.3.2 Technical Systems / 241

12.3.3 Information Systems / 242

12.3.4 Management and Goals Systems / 243

12.3.5 Human Systems / 243

12.4 Conclusions / 244

References / 244

13 Applications to Process Analytical Technology and Quality by Design 249

13.1 PAT and QbD Concepts / 249

13.2 Needs of the PAT/QbD Players and Resulting Specifications / 253

13.3 Application of Design Methodology to PAT/QbD / 255

13.3.1 Concept Generation for a PAT/QbD System Structure / 255

13.3.2 Hubka–Eder Mapping of the PAT/QbD Transformation Process for a Pharmaceutical

Process / 257

13.3.3 Analysis of Effects / 259

13.4 Applying Mechatronic Design on a PAT System for Online Software Sensing in a Bioprocess (Case) / 260

13.5 Conclusions / 263

References / 263

GLOSSARY 267

INDEX 275

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Professor Carl-Fredrik Mandenius is head of the Division of Biotechnology at Linkoping University in Sweden. His main research interests include biochemical and bio-production engineering, bioprocess monitoring and control, stem cell technology, and biosensor technology. He was a director for process R&D at Pharmacia AB and has coordinated several EU networks on hESC-derived models for drug testing.

Professor Mats Björkman is head of the Division of Assembly Technology at Linkoping University in Sweden. His main research interests include design and operation of flexible manufacturing systems and equipment. He has also been involved in research that has developed from traditional mechanical industries to include areas such as electronic manufacturing and manufacturing of biotech equipment, as well as pharmaceutical products.

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