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Radiation Processing of Polymer Materials and Its Industrial Applications

ISBN: 978-0-470-58769-0
444 pages
February 2012
Radiation Processing of Polymer Materials and Its Industrial Applications (0470587695) cover image
Up-to-date, comprehensive coverage on radiation-processed polymer materials and their applications

Offering a unique perspective of the industrial and commercial applications of the radiation processing of polymers, this insightful reference examines the fundamental scientific principles and cutting-edge developments advancing this diverse field. Through a variety of case studies, detailed examples, and economic feasibility analysis, Radiation Processing of Polymer Materials and Its Industrial Applications systematically explains the commercially viable ways to process and use radiation-processed polymeric materials in industrial products. In addition, this one-of-kind text:

  • Covers important chemistry and processing fundamentals, while emphasizing their translation into practical applications of radiation-processed polymers
  • Incorporates new applications in nanotechnology, biomaterials, and recycling
  • Systematically discusses new developments in the field and summarizes past achievements

By helping readers—from students to scientists, engineers, technicians, and sales and marketing professionals—understand and solve problems associated with radiation processing of polymers, Radiation Processing of Polymer Materials and Its Industrial Applications serves as an essential reference and fills an important gap in the literature.

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Preface xiii

Abbreviations xxiii

1 Basic Concepts of Radiation Processing 1

1.1 Radiation Sources 1

1.2 Radiation Chemistry of Polymers 15

1.3 Advantages and Disadvantages of Radiation Processing 19

1.4 Engineering of Radiation Processing 20

2 Fundamentals of Radiation Crosslinking 26

2.1 Radiation Chemistry of Crosslinking 26

2.2 Crosslinking of Polymer 29

2.3 Estimation of G Value of Crosslinking 38

2.4 Factors Affecting Radiation Crosslinking 44

3 Enhancement of Radiation Crosslinking 71

3.1 Concept of Enhancement of Radiation Crosslinking 71

3.2 Increasing Number of Polymer Radicals 72

3.3 Increasing Recombination of Polymer Radicals 74

3.4 Filler Effect 87

3.5 Hybrid Crosslinking 91

3.6 Selection of Antioxidant 92

3.7 Advanced Radiation Crosslinking 93

4 Properties of Radiation Crosslinked Polymers 103

4.1 Radiation Crosslinked Rubbers 103

4.2 Radiation Crosslinked Plastics 111

4.3 Radiation Crosslinked PVC 124

4.4 Radiation Crosslinked Engineering Plastic 126

4.5 Radiation Crosslinked PTFE 128

5 Application of Radiation Crosslinking 134

5.1 Heat-Shrinkable Plastic Products 134

5.2 Plastic Foams 142

5.3 Wire and Cable 147

5.4 Polyethylene Pipe 153

5.5 Radial Tires 156

5.6 O-Rings 162

6 New Application of Radiation Crosslinking 166

6.1 Positive Temperature Coefficient Polymer Products 166

6.2 SiC-Based High Temperature Resistant Fibers 176

6.3 Artificial Joint 180

7 Chain Scission and Oxidation 201

7.1 Chemistry and General Technology 201

7.2 Synthetic Polymers 209

7.3 Cellulose and its Derivatives 224

7.4 Polymer Stability Concerns for Radiation Sterilization 230

8 Long-Chain Branching of Polymer Resins 248

8.1 Radiation Chemistry of Branching 248

8.2 Effects on Rheology 262

8.3 Processability Implications 266

8.4 Application Examples 267

9 Radiation Processing of Aqueous Polymer Systems 276

9.1 Radiation Chemistry of Aqueous Polymer Systems 276

9.2 Crosslinking of Polymer Dissolved in Water 277

9.3 Degradation of Polysaccharide Dissolved in Water 282

9.3.1 Radiation Process 282

9.4 Crosslinking of Polymers Dispersed in Water 284

10 Curing of Composites and Adhesives 300

10.1 Radiation Chemistry of Curing 300

10.2 Advanced Composites 305

10.3 Wood and Natural Fiber Composites 318

10.4 Adhesives 322

10.5 Other Applications and Commercialization Challenges 326

11 Radiation Graft Polymerization 334

11.1 Radiation Chemistry of Graft Polymerization 334

11.2 Grafting in Solution 338

11.3 Grafting in Emulsion 344

11.4 Grafting onto Inorganic Particles 348

11.5 Application of Radiation Graft Polymerization 353

11.6 Competitiveness of Radiation Grafting 361

12 Trends in Applications and Future Prospect 373

12.1 General Aspects of Radiation Processing 373

12.2 Status of Radiation Processing 375

12.3 Radiation Processing under Development 379

12.4 Prospects of Radiation Processing 394

References 396

Index 401

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KEIZO MAKUUCHI is the Representative of EB System Consulting Office and an internationally renowned expert in the field of radiation chemistry and radiation processing of polymers. Dr. Makuuchi worked for Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute and EB System Corporation for forty years. He has authored or coauthored ten books on radiation chemistry and has contributed to more than 200 scientific publications.

SONG CHENG is the founder of Song Cheng International, a consulting company. He has over fourteen years of extensive experience in radiation processing of polymer materials. Mr. Cheng is the author of over twenty journal articles and is the inventor of six patents.

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