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Basics of Analytical Chemistry and Chemical Equilibria

ISBN: 978-0-470-59208-3
426 pages
July 2013, ©2013
Basics of Analytical Chemistry and Chemical Equilibria (0470592087) cover image

Enables students to progressively build and apply new skills and knowledge

Designed to be completed in one semester, this text enables students to fully grasp and apply the core concepts of analytical chemistry and aqueous chemical equilibria. Moreover, the text enables readers to master common instrumental methods to perform a broad range of quantitative analyses. Author Brian Tissue has written and structured the text so that readers progressively build their knowledge, beginning with the most fundamental concepts and then continually applying these concepts as they advance to more sophisticated theories and applications.

Basics of Analytical Chemistry and Chemical Equilibria is clearly written and easy to follow, with plenty of examples to help readers better understand both concepts and applications. In addition, there are several pedagogical features that enhance the learning experience, including:

  • Emphasis on correct IUPAC terminology
  • "You-Try-It" spreadsheets throughout the text, challenging readers to apply their newfound knowledge and skills
  • Online tutorials to build readers' skills and assist them in working with the text's spreadsheets
  • Links to analytical methods and instrument suppliers
  • Figures illustrating principles of analytical chemistry and chemical equilibria
  • End-of-chapter exercises

Basics of Analytical Chemistry and Chemical Equilibria is written for undergraduate students who have completed a basic course in general chemistry. In addition to chemistry students, this text provides an essential foundation in analytical chemistry needed by students and practitioners in biochemistry, environmental science, chemical engineering, materials science, nutrition, agriculture, and the life sciences.

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PREFACE ix

I QUANTITATIVE ANALYSIS USING REACTIONS THAT GO TO ‘‘COMPLETION’’ 1

1 MAKING MEASUREMENTS 3

1.1 Introduction / 3

1.2 GLP and a Few Other Important Acronyms / 10

1.3 Precision and Random Error / 15

1.4 Discarding a Suspected Outlier / 25

1.5 Calibration / 28

1.6 Maintaining Accurate Results / 43

Practice Exercises / 48

2 SAMPLE PREPARATION, EXTRACTIONS, AND CHROMATOGRAPHY 53

2.1 Sampling and Control Samples / 53

2.2 Sample Preparation / 58

2.3 Solvents and Solutions / 64

2.4 Introduction to Solubility / 69

2.5 Extraction / 71

2.6 Stationary Phases / 82

2.7 Solid-Phase Extraction (SPE) / 88

2.8 Introduction to Chromatography / 91

2.9 Immunoassays / 96

Practice Exercises / 97

3 CLASSICAL METHODS 103

3.1 Introduction / 103

3.2 Review of Chemical Reactions / 105

3.3 Reactions in Aqueous Solution / 111

3.4 Gravimetry / 120

3.5 Titration / 124

3.6 Titration Curves / 132

3.7 Coulometry / 134

Practice Exercises / 137

4 MOLECULAR SPECTROSCOPY 141

4.1 Introduction / 141

4.2 Properties of EM Radiation / 142

4.3 Electromagnetic Spectrum / 146

4.4 Spectroscopic Transitions / 147

4.5 UV/Vis Absorption Spectroscopy / 154

4.6 UV/Vis Instrumentation / 156

4.7 Beer–Lambert Law / 159

4.8 Molecular Fluorescence / 167

Practice Exercises / 171

II REACTIONS THAT DO NOT GO TO ‘‘COMPLETION.’’ EQUILIBRIA IN AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS 177

5 ACID–BASE EQUILIBRIA AND ACTIVITY 179

5.1 Acids and Bases / 179

5.2 Weak Acids and Weak Bases / 186

5.3 Water and Kw / 190

5.4 Acid Strength / 196

5.5 The Concept of Activity / 199

5.6 Acid–Base Equilibrium Calculations / 212

Practice Exercises / 218

6 BUFFER SOLUTIONS AND POLYPROTIC ACIDS 221

6.1 Buffer Solutions / 221

6.2 Alpha Fraction Plots / 226

6.3 Weak Acid Titration Curve / 230

6.4 Polyprotic Acids / 233

Practice Exercises / 242

7 COMPLEXATION AND PRECIPITATION EQUILIBRIA 245

7.1 Complex Terminology / 246

7.2 Complex Equilibria / 249

7.3 Competing Equilibria / 256

7.4 Stepwise Complexation / 263

7.5 Precipitate Equilibrium / 267

7.6 Molar Solubility / 275

7.7 Precipitation and Competing Equilibria / 282

Practice Exercises / 287

III INSTRUMENTAL METHODS AND ANALYTICAL SEPARATIONS 293

8 ELECTROANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY 295

8.1 Introduction / 295

8.2 Standard Reduction Potentials / 298

8.3 Using Half Reactions / 302

8.4 Background on Spontaneous Reactions and Equilibrium / 308

8.5 Reaction Energies, Voltages, and the Nernst Equation / 311

8.6 Electrochemical Cells / 314

8.7 Potentiometry / 319

8.8 Ion-Selective Electrodes (ISE) / 322

8.9 Voltammetry / 328

Practice Exercises / 336

9 ATOMIC SPECTROMETRY 340

9.1 Atomization / 342

9.2 Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (AAS) / 346

9.3 Atomic Emission Spectrometry (AES) / 354

9.4 Introduction to Mass Spectrometry (MS) / 357

9.5 ICP-MS Measurements / 361

9.6 Summary / 362

Practice Exercises / 364

10 ANALYTICAL SEPARATIONS 367

10.1 Thin-Layer Chromatography / 368

10.2 Chromatogram Terminology / 372

10.3 Column Selection / 375

10.4 High Performance Liquid Chromatography / 380

10.5 Gas Chromatography / 388

10.6 Molecular Mass Spectrometry / 390

10.7 Electrophoresis / 398

Practice Exercises / 402

INDEX 407

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BRIAN M. TISSUE, PhD, is Associate Professor of Chemistry at Virginia Tech, where he teaches analytical chemistry at both the undergraduate and graduate levels. In addition to curriculum development, Dr. Tissue oversees a research program in nanomaterials and analytical spectroscopy, preparing and testing nanocomposites for catalytic activity. Among his honors, Dr. Tissue has received an NSF Career Award and a Cottrell Scholar Award from the Research Corporation for Science Advancement.

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