Valuation for M&A: Building Value in Private Companies, 2nd Edition
The only book to focus on valuation specifically for mergers and acquisitions, Valuation For M&A: Building Value in Private Companies, Second Edition lays out the steps for measuring and managing value creation in privately held businesses. This groundbreaking work led directly to authors Chris M. Mellen and Franck C. Evans being named the joint 2010 AM&AA Middle Market Thought Leader of the Year by the Alliance of Merger & Acquisition Advisors, and its thorough overview of the subject:
Recognizes a company as an investment and explains how to manage that value to maximize shareholder returns, focusing on returns, risks, and capital invested
Explains investment or strategic value versus fair market value and provides a document request checklist; sample interview questions; and formats for adjusting financial statements, developing discount rates, the computation of net cash flow; and a valuation reconciliation form
Includes a comprehensive case study to illustrate concepts and calculations
Now covers fair value accounting and the impact of SFAS Nos. 141, 142, and 157 and their IFRS counterparts, intangible asset valuation techniques, exit planning, international M&As, and venture backed/early stage companies
Showing corporate executives as well as M&A professionals and business appraisers how to value privately-held businesses for merger and acquisition purposes, this book helps investors, executives, and their advisors determine the optimum strategy to enhance both market value and strategic value to maximize return on investment.
Dedication and Acknowledgments.
CHAPTER 1 Winning through Merger and Acquisition.
Critical Values Shareholders Overlook.
Stand-alone Fair Market Value.
Investment Value to Strategic Buyers.
"Win-Win" Benefits of Merger and Acquisition.
CHAPTER 2 Building Value and Measuring Return on Investment in a Private Company.
Public Company Value Creation Model.
Computing Private Company Value Creation and ROI.
Analyzing Value Creation Strategies.
CHAPTER 3 Competitive Analysis.
Linking Strategic Planning to Building Value.
Assessing Specific-Company Risk
Competitive Factors Frequently Encountered in Nonpublic Entities.
CHAPTER 4 Merger and Acquisition Market and Planning Process.
Common Seller and Buyer Motivations.
Why Mergers and Acquisitions Fail.
Sales Strategy and Process.
Acquisition Strategy and Process.
Due Diligence Preparation.
CHAPTER 5 Measuring Synergies.
Synergy Measurement Process.
Key Variables in Assessing Synergies.
Synergy and Advance Planning.
CHAPTER 6 Exit Planning.
Why Is Exit Planning So Difficult?
What Makes Planning for Your Private Company Investment Unique?
Why Should Exit Planning for Your Private Company Begin Now?
Exit Planning Process.
Step 1: Setting Exit Goals.
Step 2: Owner Readiness.
Step 3: Type of Exiting Owner.
Step 4: Exit Options.
Step 5: Range of Values.
Step 6: Execution of Exit Plan.
CHAPTER 7 Valuation Approaches and Fundamentals.
Business Valuation Approaches.
Using the Invested Capital Model to Define the Investment Being Appraised.
Why Net Cash Flow Measures Value Most Accurately.
Frequent Need to Negotiate from Earnings Measures.
Financial Statement Adjustments.
Managing Investment Risk in Merger and Acquisition.
CHAPTER 8 Income Approach: Using Rates and Returns to Establish Value.
Why Values for Merger and Acquisition Should Be Driven by the Income Approach.
Two Methods within the Income Approach.
Three-Stage DCF Model.
Establishing Defendable Long-term Growth Rates and Terminal Values.
CHAPTER 9 Cost of Capital Essentials for Accurate Valuations.
Cost of Debt Capital.
Cost of Preferred Stock.
Cost of Common Stock.
Fundamentals and Limitations of the Capital Asset Pricing Model.
Modified Capital Asset Pricing Model.
Summary of Ibbotson Rate of Return Data.
Private Cost of Capital.
International Cost of Capital.
How to Develop an Equity Cost for a Target Company.
CHAPTER 10 Weighted Average Cost of Capital.
Iterative Weighted Average Cost of Capital Process.
Shortcut Weighted Average Cost of Capital Formula.
Common Errors in Computing Cost of Capital.
CHAPTER 11 Market Approach: Using Guideline Companies and Strategic Transactions.
Merger and Acquisition Transactional Data Method.
Guideline Public Company Method.
Selection of Valuation Multiples.
Market Multiples Commonly Used.
CHAPTER 12 Asset Approach.
Book Value versus Market Value.
Premises of Value.
Use of the Asset Approach to Value Lack-of-Control Interests.
Adjusted Book Value Method.
Treatment of Nonoperating Assets or Asset Surpluses or Shortages.
Specific Steps in Computing Adjusted Book Value.
CHAPTER 13 Adjusting Value through Premiums and Discounts.
Applicability of Premiums and Discounts.
Application and Derivation of Premiums and Discounts.
Apply Discretion in the Size of the Adjustment.
Control versus Lack of Control in Income-driven Methods.
Fair Market Value versus Investment Value.
CHAPTER 14 Reconciling Initial Value Estimates and Determining Value Conclusion.
Essential Need for Broad Perspective.
Income Approach Review.
Market Approach Review.
Asset Approach Review.
Value Reconciliation and Conclusion.
Checks to Value.
Candidly Assess Valuation Capabilities.
CHAPTER 15 Art of the Deal.
Unique Negotiation Challenges.
Deal Structure: Stock versus Assets.
Terms of Sale: Cash versus Stock.
Bridging the Gap.
See the Deal from the Other Side.
CHAPTER 16 M&A and Financial Reporting.
U.S. GAAP and IFRS.
Relevant FASB and IFRS Statements.
Reviews by the Audit Firm.
ASC 820: Fair Value Measurements (SFAS 157).
ASC 805: Business Combinations (SFAS 141(R)).
ASC 350: Goodwill and Other Intangible Assets (SFAS 142).
Incorporating ASC 805 (SFAS 141(R)) into the Due Diligence Process.
CHAPTER 17 Intangible Asset Valuation.
Approaches to Valuing Intangible Assets.
Key Components to Intangible Asset Valuation.
Intangible Asset Valuation Methods.
CHAPTER 18 Measuring and Managing Value in High-Tech Start-ups.
Why Appraisals of High-Tech Start-ups Are Essential.
Key Differences in High-Tech Start-ups.
Value Management Begins with Competitive Analysis.
Stages of Development.
Risk and Discount Rates.
Start-ups and Traditional Valuation Methods.
QED Survey of Valuation Methods Used by Venture Capitalists.
A Probability-Weighted Scenario Method to Value Start-ups.
Equity Allocation Methods.
CHAPTER 19 Cross-Border M&A.
Strategic Buy-Side Considerations.
CHAPTER 20 Merger and Acquisition Valuation Case Study.
History and Competitive Conditions.
General Economic Conditions.
Specific Industry Conditions.
Computation of the Stand-alone Fair Market Value.
Computation of Investment Value.
Suggested Considerations to Case Conclusion.
About the Authors.
FRANK C. EVANS, ASA, CBA, is the founder of Evans and Associates Valuation Advisory Services (www.evansandassociates.net), in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, and a principal in American Business Appraisers®. He holds the Accredited Senior Appraiser (ASA) and Certified Business Appraiser (CBA) designations and held the Certified Public Accountant Accredited in Business Valuation (CPA/ABV) designation. With an MBA and a bachelor of arts degree in economics from the University of Pittsburgh, he performs valuations and related consultation for strategic planning, merger and acquisition, tax planning, shareholder agreements and disputes, and litigation support. He is the coauthor with David Bishop of the first edition of Valuation for M&A and can be reached at firstname.lastname@example.org.