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Fundraising Principles and Practice

ISBN: 978-0-470-60936-1
688 pages
March 2010, Jossey-Bass
Fundraising Principles and Practice (0470609362) cover image
This books offers a definitive text on the vital topic fundraising. It provides students of fundraising and nonprofit professionals access to the most relevant theories and includes concrete examples of modern fundraising practice. The book contains clear learning objectives, recommended readings, case studies, summary self-test questions, and exercises at the end of each chapter. The Principles and Practice of Fundraising comprehensively addresses all the major forms of fundraising and critical topics such as donor behavior and fundraising planning.

Praise for fundraising principles and practice
"Not only will fundraisers benefit from this comprehensive yet accessible text, but this should be required reading for all nonprofit practitioners and scholars. Reading this book will provide valuable insight on a vital subject and enhance the success of any fundraising effort."
John B. Ford, president, Academy of Marketing Science and professor of marketing, Old Dominion University

"This is not just a how-to-do-it book. Rather, it provides deep knowledge about the nonprofit sector, its role in society, and the values and psychology of giving that is essential to responsible and effective fundraising."
Paul Brest, president, William and Flora Hewlett Foundation and author, Money Well Spent

"Adrian Sargeant is the world's foremost fundraising scholar. This text will be invaluable to the beginner, but new research findings mean it should also be a must read for established practitioners."
Steve Thomas, co-chair, Resource Alliance, and chairman, Stephen Thomas Ltd, Toronto

"Designed and written to fill the void in current fundraising and development textbooks for both undergraduate and graduate students studying nonprofit management and leadership, Fundraising Principles and Practice surpasses my expectations for a comprehensive approach that will benefit American Humanics programs."
SueAnn Strom, vice president, Academic Partnerships, American Humanics, Inc.

"Sargeant is the accessible academic and this is typical of his work. It is rigorously researched, clear, concise, well written, well presented and entirely appropriate. Any fundraiser who knows what Adrian knows will outperform the others. It's as simple as that."
Ken Burnett, author, Relationship Fundraising and The Zen of Fundraising
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Figures, Tables, and Exhibits xv

Preface xxiii

Acknowledgments xxvii

The Authors xxix

Part One: Introduction to Fundraising and Donor Behavior 1

1 Introduction to the Nonprofit Sector 3

A “Third” Sector 4

A Tax-Based Definition 7

A Structural-Operational Definition 14

Size and Economic Significance of the Nonprofit Sector 15

Sources of Income 19

Philanthropic Income 20

Summary 23

Discussion Questions 24

2 The Development of a Profession 25

Early American Fundraising 26

The Great Philanthropists 28

Key Historical Figures 29

Toward a Profession 31

Looking to the Future 39

Summary 42

Discussion Questions 42

3 Ethical Fundraising 44
Eugene R. Tempel and Sarah K. Nathan

Obedience to the Unenforceable 46

The AFP Code of Ethical Principles and Standards 48

The Donor Bill of Rights 51

Common Ethical Dilemmas 53

Adopting Professional Codes 59

Summary 59

Discussion Questions 60

4 Individual Giving Behavior 61

Who Gives? 62

Motivation 66

Definitions of Donor Behavior 72

Modeling Donor Behavior 73

Donor Decision Making 90

Feedback 92

Alternative Models 93

Summary 95

Discussion Questions 96

5 Social Influences on Giving 97

A Social Giving Model 98

Societal Environment 100

Social Environment 100

Summary 111

Discussion Questions 112

Part Two: Fundraising Planning 113

6 Fundraising Planning: The Fundraising Audit 115

A Planning Framework 116

The Fundraising Audit 119

Analytical Tools 132

Fundraising Metrics 140

Conducting an Audit in a Small Nonprofit 142

The SWOT Analysis 143

Summary 144

Discussion Questions 145

7 Fundraising Planning 146

Setting Fundraising Objectives 147

Key Strategies 151

Tactical Plans 181

Budget 182

Scheduling 183

Monitoring and Control 184

Selection of an Appropriate Planning Framework 185

Summary 186

Discussion Questions 187

8 The Case for Support 188
Timothy L. Seiler and Eva E. Aldrich

Preparing the Case 189

Case Expressions 194

Effective Case Expressions for Fundraising 195

Summary 198

Discussion Questions 199

9 Assessing Fundraising Performance 200

Aggregate Fundraising Ratios 201

Conducting a Fundraising ROI Analysis 207

Other Measures of Performance 213

Benchmarking Fundraising Costs 214

Sector Benchmarking Initiatives 217

Making Investment Decisions 221

Accounting for Risk 231

Making the Case for Investment 232

Summary 233

Discussion Questions 234

Part Three: Fundraising Methods 237

10 Direct Response Fundraising 239

Cornerstones of Direct Response 241

Acquisition Planning 243

Summary 275

Discussion Questions 275

11 Fundraising Online: Techniques and Tools 276
Ted Hart and Adrian Sargeant ePhilanthropy 279

Web Site Strategy 279

Fundraising Online 283

Online Communication Metrics 306

Summary 310

Discussion Questions 311

12 Donor Retention and Development 312

What Is Loyalty? 315

Recruiting the Right People 316

Building Donor Loyalty 319

Planning for Retention 328

Relationship Fundraising 334

Calculating Donor Value 336

Segmenting for Growth 345

Loyalty Metrics 349

Summary 350

Discussion Questions 350

13 Major Gift Fundraising 351
Robert F. Hartsook and Adrian Sargeant

Characteristics of Major Givers 352

Motives of Major Givers 354

Major Donor Recruitment 359

Summary 375

Discussion Questions 375

14 Bequest, In Memoriam, and Tribute Giving 377

Will Making 381

Charitable Bequest Giving 384

Motives for Charitable Bequest Giving 389

Soliciting Bequests 393

Talking the Language of Bequest 398

Memorial and Tribute Fundraising 403

Summary 405

Discussion Questions 405

15 Planned Giving 407
Matthew J. Beem and Adrian Sargeant

Planned Giving Vehicles 410

Donor Motivation 420

Soliciting Planned Gifts 422

Planned Gift Donor Stewardship 425

Planned Gift Donor Appreciation 426

Managing the Planned Giving Function 427

Summary 429

Discussion Questions 430

16 Corporate Giving and Fundraising 431
Dwight F. Burlingame and Adrian Sargeant

History 433

Why Do Corporations Give? 434

Forms of Business Support 439

Cause-Related Marketing 443

Who to Ask? Selecting the Right Organization 447

Benefits and Pitfalls 450

Fundraising Planning 452

Summary 459

Discussion Questions 460

17 Grant Fundraising 461

Definitions and Categories 462

Foundation Funding Trends 463

Preparation and Planning 465

Foundation Research 468

Assessment and Prioritization 471

Initial Contact 471

Application and Proposal 472

Relationship Building 478

The Grant Cycle 478

Why Applications Fail 479

International Funding 482

Summary 483

Discussion Questions 484

Part Four: Fundraising and Civil Society 487

18 Managing Fundraising Volunteers 489
Walter Wymer and Adrian Sargeant

Formal Versus Informal Volunteering 492

Volunteer Recruitment 497

Retention Strategies 509

Program Evaluation 515

Summary 516

Discussion Questions 517

19 Fundraising Events 519
Karin Cox

A Typology of Events 521

Anatomy of an Event 531

Evaluating Fundraising Events 535

Summary 538

Discussion Questions 538

20 Women and Philanthropy 540
Debra J. Mesch and Andrea Pactor

Capacity for Giving 541

Barriers to Women’s Giving 542

Gender Matters 543

Women’s Influence in Decision Making 544

Generational Differences 545

New Models of Engagement 547

Value of Donor Education 551

Women as Donors: The Fundraising Strategy 552

Measuring Impact 557

Summary 558

Discussion Questions 558

21 Public Trust and Confidence 560

Trust and Confidence 563

Building Trust in the Sector 565

Lessons from Across the Pond 570

Growing Confidence in the Nonprofit Sector 572

Building Trust in Organizations 576

Building Confidence in Organizations 577

Summary 580

Discussion Questions 581

22 The Social Role of Fundraising 582
Richard B. Gunderman

The Role of Giving 583

Human Flourishing 585

The Long View 587

Priorities 588

Fundraisers’ Dreams 591

Summary 593

Discussion Questions 593

References 595

Name Index 627

Subject Index 633

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Adrian Sargeant is the Robert F. Hartsook Professor of Fundraising at Indiana University; professor of nonprofit marketing and fundraising at Bristol Business School in the United Kingdom; and adjunct professor of philanthropy at the Australian Centre for Philanthropy and Nonprofit Studies at Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane, Australia. The managing editor of the International Journal of Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Marketing, he has authored numerous articlesand books.

Jen Shang is a professor and philanthropic psychologist at the School of Public and Environmental Affairs at Indiana University–Bloomington. Her work has been featured in the Chronicle of Philanthropy, Advancing Philanthropy, Nonprofit Times, and The New York Times.

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