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Renewable Energy Technologies

ISBN: 978-0-470-61041-1
January 2010, Wiley-ISTE
Renewable Energy Technologies (0470610417) cover image
This book deals with the emerging generation of renewable energy technologies, covering solar energy (photovoltaic, thermal and thermodynamic energy conversion), wind energy, marine energy, small hydropower, geothermal energy, biofuels, biogas and the use of wood as a substitute for fossil fuels.
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Preface xvii

Chapter 1. Photovoltaic Electricity Production 1
Jean-Claude MULLER

1.1. Introduction 2

1.2. Photovoltaic conversion 3

1.3. Cells with a crystalline silicon base 5

1.4. Cells in thin films 10

1.5. Photovoltaic market 17

1.6. Prospects for photovoltaic electricity development 22

1.7. Bibliography 23

Chapter 2. Photovoltaic Systems Connected to the Grid 25
Seddik BACHA and Daniel CHATROUX

2.1. Problems of photovoltaic power generation connected to the grid 25

2.2. General remarks on connection 28

2.3. Physical architectures 30

2.4. Constraints related to supplying energy to the utility grid 34

2.5. Algorithmic architectures 38

2.6. Conclusion 42

2.7. Bibliography 43

Chapter 3. Solar Heating 45
Christophe MARVILLET

3.1. Introduction 45

3.2. Available energy from the sun 49

3.3. Flat solar panels 53

3.4. Solar heating systems 58

3.5. Bibliography 62

Chapter 4. Solar Thermodynamic Power Stations 63
Alain FERRIÈRE

Introduction 63

4.1. Concentrating solar power technologies 65

4.2. The state of the art 84

4.3. Prospects 94

4.4. Bibliography 102

Chapter 5. Wind Systems Technology 103
Régine BELHOMME, Daniel ROYE and Nicolas LAVERDURE

5.1. Introduction: wind power today 103

5.2. Description of a wind generator 104

5.3. Operation of a wind turbine 106

5.4. Bibliography 136

Chapter 6. Integration of Wind Turbine Generators into the Grid 143
Régine BELHOMME, Daniel ROYE and Nicolas LAVERDURE

6.1. Connection to the grid 143

6.2. Comparison of technologies and conclusion 169

6.3. Bibliography 171

6.4. Appendix: symbol table 177

Chapter 7. Marine Energy Resources Conversion Systems 181
Bernard MULTON, Alain CLÉMENT, Marie RUELLAN, Julien SEIGNEURBIEUX and Hamid BEN AHMED

7.1. Introduction 181

7.2. Electricity productivity from marine resources 183

7.3. Ocean wave generator systems (WEC: wave energy converters) 188

7.4. Tidal energy converters (TEC) 202

7.5. Other conversion systems 214

7.6. Conclusion 221

7.7. Bibliography 223

Chapter 8. Small Hydropower 227
Raymond CHENAL, Aline CHOULOT, Vincent DENIS and Norbert TISSOT

8.1. Introduction 227

8.2. What is small hydropower? 229

8.3. Hydraulic energy 231

8.4. The exploitation of hydraulic force 233

8.5. Potential 244

8.6. Research & Development in small hydropower 245

8.7. Environmental aspects of small hydropower 249

8.8. Policies favoring small hydropower 254

8.9. Conclusions 257

8.10. Bibliography 258

Chapter 9. Geothermal Energy Production 261
Florence JAUDIN and Laurent LE BEL

9.1. Introduction 261

9.2. Geothermal energy: why, for whom and how? 262

9.3. Geothermal heat pump systems 269

9.4. Direct production of heat 286

9.5. Electricity production.301

9.6. Glossary 320

9.7. Bibliography 325

Chapter 10. Biofuels 329
Frédéric MONOT, Jean-Luc DUPLAN, Nathalie ALAZARD-TOUX and Stéphane HIS

10.1. The place of biofuels in the energy environment 329

10.2. Current systems 345

10.3. Future systems: use of lignocellulose 358

10.4. Economic and environmental balance of biofuel production systems 380

10.5. Bibliography 394

Chapter 11. Biogas 397
Pierre LABEYRIE

11.1. Introduction: biogas, “the renewable natural gas” 397

11.2. Naturally occurring biogas 397

11.3. Production organized by humans 398

11.4. History of anaerobic digestion 399

11.5. Anaerobic digestion 400

11.6. Anaerobic digestion installations or biogas units 405

11.7. Uses of biogas 419

11.8. Conclusion: renewable natural gas and its challenges 424

11.9. Bibliography 425

Chapter 12. Energy Production from Wood 427
Frédéric DOUARD

12.1. Introduction: what is wood energy? 427

12.2. Overview of wood fuels 429

12.3. Principles of conversion of wood into energy 442

12.4. Generators of thermal energy from wood 450

12.5. Conclusion 470

12.6. Bibliography 471

List of Authors 473

Index 475

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