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Windows Server 2008 R2 Hyper-V: Insiders Guide to Microsoft's Hypervisor

ISBN: 978-0-470-62700-6
408 pages
June 2010
Windows Server 2008 R2 Hyper-V: Insiders Guide to Microsoft
Get the inside scoop on Hyper-V for Windows Server 2008 R2

Virtualization is a top priority for thousands of companies all over the world. Written by an author team that is part of the Windows virtualization group at Microsoft, Windows Server 2008 R2 Hyper-V will walk you through Hyper-V essentials so you can get you up to speed and down to business with Hyper-V.

Now fully updated for Windows Server 2008 R2 Hyper-V, you will find additional content on new features and capabilities such as Live Migration and support for 64 Logical Processors (LP).

  • Teaches how to manage virtual machines with the latest System Center tools such as Virtual Machine Manager 2008 R2, Data Protection Manager 2010, and Operations Manager 2007 R2
  • Covers all of the new functionalities of Windows Server 2008 R2 Hyper-V, including Live Migration, 64 LP support, Processor Compatibility Mode, enhanced processor functionality support, hot-add and remove of storage, TCP Offload support, and VM Queue support
  • Demonstrates key scenarios for Hyper-V, including server consolidation, testing and development, Business Continuity and Disaster Recovery, and Dynamic IT
  • Provides step-by-step instructions and examples

This insiders guide will help you get the most out of your hardware and reduce cost with Windows Server 2008 R2 Hyper-V.

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Introduction xix

Chapter 1 • Introducing Hyper-V 1

Scenarios for Hyper-V 1

Server Consolidation 1

Testing and Development 2

Business Continuity and Disaster Recovery 2

Dynamic IT 3

Architecture of Hyper-V 3

Parent Partition 4

Virtual Machine 7

Features of Hyper-V 11

General Features 11

New Features in Windows Server 2008 R2 13

Hardware and Software Requirements for Hyper-V 13

Hardware Requirements and Best Practices 13

Software Requirements 15

Summary 16

Chapter 2 • Installing Hyper-V and Server Core 17

Performing a Clean Installation of Hyper-V 17

Meeting the Installation Requirements 18

Installing the Hyper-V Role 19

Adding the Hyper-V Role 20

Updating from the Beta Version to the Final Version of Hyper-V 22

Performing the Pre-update Configuration 22

Performing the Post-update Configuration 23

Upgrading Hyper-V from Windows Server 2008 to Windows Server 2008 R2 23

Installing Windows Server Core 24

Exploring the Windows Server Core Architecture 24

Managing Windows Server Core 26

Installing Windows Server 2008 as a Core Installation 27

Installation Considerations and Requirements 27

Performing a Core Installation 27

Doing the Initial Configuration 28

Installing Hyper-V Under Windows Server 2008 Server Core 30

New in Windows Server 2008 R2: Introducing sconfig 32

Summary 33

Chapter 3 • Configuring Hyper-V 35

Getting Started: The Hyper-V MMC 35

Creating a New Virtual Machine 37

Virtual Machine Settings 42

Hardware 42

Virtual Machine Management 51

New Virtual Hard Disk Wizard 55

Exploring Types of Virtual Hard Disks 55

Using the Wizard to Create Virtual Hard Disks 57

Virtual Network Manager 58

Hyper-V Settings 59

Summary 61

Chapter 4 • Virtualization Best Practices 63

Host Best Practices 63

Choosing a Processor 63

How Much Memory Is Enough? 68

Storage: How Many Drives Do I Need? 69

Networking 70

Host Operating System Best Practices 74

Virtual Machine Best Practices 75

Integration Services: Guest Drivers 76

Sysprep: Creating a Master Base Image 77

Offline Patching 78

Summary 78

Chapter 5 • Hyper-V Security 79

The Hyper-V Security Model 79

Hypervisor Security 80

Virtualization Stack Security 81

The Virtual Machine Access Security Model 81

Working with the Authorization Manager 82

Understanding the Terminology 82

Using the Authorization Manager for Hyper-V Security 82

Using Alternative Tools 94

Storing the AzMan Store in Active Directory 94

Summary 94

Chapter 6 • Virtual Machine Migration 95

Migration Challenges and Drivers 95

Physical to Virtual (P2V) Migration 97

Virtual to Virtual (V2V) Migration 97

Virtual to Physical (V2P) 98

Migration Considerations 98

Capturing the Configuration 99

Creating a Manual Inventory 99

Using the MAP Toolkit 100

Preparing a System for Migration 104

Capturing and Deploying Disk Images 104

Manual Migration with Image-Capture Tools 104

Using Traditional Backup and Recovery Tools: SCVMM and Windows Home Server 105

Common Dedicated P2V Tools 106

Updating Images 107

Walking through a Physical-to-Virtual Migration 108

Traditional Imaging: Collecting and Creating Your Imaging Toolkit 108

Easy Image Capture: Disk2VHD 116

Firing Up: Performing System Updates 117

Exporting and Importing in Hyper-V 120

Exporting a Virtual Machine Locally 120

Exporting Over the Network 121

Importing a Virtual Machine 123

Summary 125

Chapter 7 • Backing Up and Recovering VMs 127

Virtual Machine Backup Considerations 127

Using the Volume Shadow Copy Services 128

Using VSS Backups and Saving State 130

Hyper-V Snapshots Are Not Backups! 132

Host-Based Backup Approaches 133

Export/Import 133

Physical to Virtual Conversion 134

Manual VHD Backup and Recovery 134

Windows Server Backup 135

Enterprise Backup Tools and Solutions 135

Agent Multiplexing 135

Backup Encapsulation Benefits 135

Beware of Bloat in Host Backups 136

Child Backup: Backing Up from Within 137

VM Backup Driven by Storage 137

VM Backup Driven by Applications 138

Cluster-Shared Volumes and Backup 138

Manually Backing Up and Recovering a Virtual Machine 138

Performing a Windows Server Backup 138

Performing a Manual Backup 149

Summary 158

Chapter 8 • High Availability 159

Windows Server 2008 Failover Clustering 159

Failover Clustering Basics 161

Quick Migration vs. Live Migration 163

Configuring a Cluster 163

Protecting the VM vs. Protecting the Application 163

Required Components for Failover Clustering 164

Storage Considerations for Clustering 167

Using Pass-Through Disk to Improve Performance 167

Clustering with GUIDs and Mount Points 168

Configuring Multiple VMs on a Single Physical Volume 168

Clustered Shared Volumes in R2 169

Backup and Recovery of a VM’s Host CSV 169

Building a Failover Cluster for Hyper-V 170

Setting Up a Failover Cluster 171

Hyper-V Server 2008 R2 and Server Core 181

Configuring iSCSI from the Command Line 183

Clustered Virtual Machine Management 185

Summary 186

Chapter 9 • Understanding WMI, Scripting, and Hyper-V 187

Common Management Tasks 187

WMI Overview 189

Accessing WMI 191

WMI Security 192

Accessing the Virtualization Namespace 192

WMI Scripting Tools and Resources 192

Browsing the Virtualization Namespace 192

Scripting Technology Overview 195

Visual Basic Script 196

JScript 196

Perl, Python, and Others 196

Command-Line Tools 197

Windows PowerShell 197

PowerShell for Newcomers 198

PowerShell Installation and Setup 198

Finding Your Way Around PowerShell 201

Making Things Work in PowerShell 203

Common Elements of WMI Scripts 213

WMI and VBScript 213

WMI and PowerShell 215

Virtualization Classes 216

Useful WMI Virtualization Classes to Know 216

The Msvm_ComputerSystem Class 219

Summary 223

Chapter 10 • Automating Tasks 225

Building on the Work of Others 225

Original Hyper-V Library 226

New R2 Library 227

Provisioning 229

Creating a Bare-Bones VM 229

Setting BIOS Options, Startup/Shutdown, and Additional Elements 231

Remote Virtual Machine Provisioning 233

Precreating Generic VHDs 234

Deprovisioning 236

Physical Server Setup 237

Configuration Management 238

Discovery 238

Creating Simple Reports 245

Managing the Virtual Environment 248

Maintaining Virtual Systems 254

Managing Access 258

Migration 258

Simple File Copy 258

Export/Import 259

Failover Clustering 259

Virtual to Virtual Migration 260

Backup and Recovery 260

Collecting and Monitoring Data 260

Viewing the Desktop 260

Testing for Service 261

Accessing Processor Performance Data 262

Performance Monitoring and PowerGadgets 267

Summary 267

Chapter 11 • Using System Center Virtual Machine Manager 2008 269

System Center Suite Overview 269

System Center Virtual Machine Manager 2008 270

System Center Operations Manager 2007 270

System Center Data Protection Manager 2007 SP1 271

System Center Configuration Manager 2007 272

SCVMM 2008 Architecture Overview 273

SCVMM Server 275

SCVMM 2008 Library Server 275

SCVMM Database 276

SCVMM Administrator Console 277

Virtual Machine Host 278

SCVMM Additional Components 279

Installing SCVMM 2008 280

SCVMM 2008 Prerequisites 280

Installing the SCVMM 2008 Server Role 281

Installing the SCVMM 2008 Administrator Console 283

Adding a Managed Host 283

Creating Your First VM in SCVMM 284

Installing the SCVMM 2008 Self-Service Portal 286

Integrating SCOM 2007 and SCVMM 2008 288

Enabling PRO Functionality 289

Customizing the Base PRO Monitors 292

Provisioning Virtual Machines from the Library 294

VM Host Placement 294

Using SCVMM Templates 295

Provisioning Systems via P2V Functionality 299

Creating Highly Available Virtual Machines 301

Summary 304

Chapter 12 • Protecting Virtualized Environments with System Center Data Protection Manager 305

Overview of Data Protection Manager 305

History of DPM 306

Backup Alternatives 307

Understanding DPM Storage 307

Protecting Your Hyper-V Environment 310

Setting Up Your First DPM Server 310

Introducing the DPM Administrator Console 315

Deploying Agents and Application Workload Prerequisites 315

Adding Storage to DPM 320

Configuring Protection of Hyper-V Hosts 321

What Do You Want to Protect? 322

How Do You Want to Protect It? 323

Configuring Disk-Based Protection 323

Configuring Tape-Based Protection 327

Setting Up the Initial Baseline 327

Considerations When Protecting Virtualized Environments 329

Virtual Machines, Hosts, and Guests 329

Choosing What to Protect and How to Recover 330

Protecting Virtual Machines from the Host 331

Choosing Guest or Host or Both 331

Restoring Your Virtual Environment with DPM 332

Overview of the DPM Restore UI 332

Restoring a Virtual Machine from the DPM UI 333

Summary 337

Chapter 13 • Using System Center Operations Manager 2007 339

Introduction to System Center Operations Manager 2007 339

SCOM Technical Overview 340

Core Components of SCOM 341

Optional Server Roles and Components 342

SCOM 2007 Command Shell 344

Using SCOM for Your Virtualization Environment 344

Scenario 1: Deploying a New SCOM Environment 346

Scenario 2: SCOM Already Deployed 349

Monitoring and Reporting 351

Summary 357

Index 359

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John Kelbley is a senior technical product manager at Microsoft, helping customers with virtualization and high-performance computing. He is a frequent speaker at conferences and a TechNet Magazine contributor.

Mike Sterling is a program manager at Microsoft, where he focuses on the functionality of Hyper-V in Windows Server. He is a regular presenter at TechEd and an active contributor to Microsoft's virtualization team blog.

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