Quantitative and Statistical Research Methods: From Hypothesis to ResultsISBN: 9780470631829
496 pages
August 2012, JosseyBass

Quantitative and Statistical Research Methods
This userfriendly textbook teaches students to understand and apply procedural steps in completing quantitative studies. It explains statistics while progressing through the steps of the hypothesistesting process from hypothesis to results. The research problems used in the book reflect statistical applications related to interesting and important topics. In addition, the book provides a Research Analysis and Interpretation Guide to help students analyze research articles.
Designed as a handson resource, each chapter covers a single research problem and offers directions for implementing the research method from start to finish. Readers will learn how to:
 Pinpoint research questions and hypotheses
 Identify, classify, and operationally define the study variables
 Choose appropriate research designs
 Conduct power analysis
 Select an appropriate statistic for the problem
 Use a data set
 Conduct data screening and analyses using SPSS
 Interpret the statistics
 Write the results related to the problem
Quantitative and Statistical Research Methods allows students to immediately, independently, and successfully apply quantitative methods to their own research projects.
Tables and Figures ix
Preface xvii
The Authors xix
Chapter 1 Introduction and Overview 1
Review of Foundational Research Concepts 3
Review of Foundational Statistical Information 6
The Normal Distribution 14
Chapter 2 Logical Steps of Conducting Quantitative Research: HypothesisTesting Process 29
HypothesisTesting Process 30
Chapter 3 Maximizing Hypothesis Decisions Using Power Analysis 39
Balance between Avoiding Type I and Type II Errors 41
Chapter 4 Research and Statistical Designs 53
Formulating Experimental Conditions 54
Reducing the Imprecision in Measurement 55
Controlling Extraneous Experimental Influences 57
Internal Validity and Experimental Designs 59
Choosing a Statistic to Use for an Analysis 67
Chapter 5 Introduction to IBM SPSS 20 77
The IBM SPSS 20 Data View Screen 80
Naming and Defining Variables in Variable View 80
Entering Data 86
Examples of Basic Analyses 87
Examples of Modifying Data Procedures 96
Chapter 6 Diagnosing Study Data for Inaccuracies and Assumptions 99
Research Example 100
Chapter 7 Randomized Design Comparing Two Treatments and a Control Using a OneWay Analysis of Variance 129
Research Problem 130
Study Variables 131
Research Design 133
Stating the Omnibus (Comprehensive) Research Question 135
Hypothesis Testing Step 1: Establish the Alternative (Research) Hypothesis (Ha) 136
Hypothesis Testing Step 2: Establish the Null Hypothesis (H0) 137
Hypothesis Testing Step 3: Decide on a Risk Level (Alpha) of Rejecting the True H0 Considering Type I and II Errors and Power 138
Hypothesis Testing Step 4: Choose Appropriate Statistic and Its Sampling Distribution to Test the H0 Assuming H0 Is True 143
Hypothesis Testing Step 5: Select Sample, Collect Data, Screen Data, Compute Statistic, and Determine Probability Estimates 144
Hypothesis Testing Step 6: Make Decision Regarding the H0 and Interpret Post Hoc Effect Sizes and Confidence Intervals 162
Formula Calculations of the Study Results 166
Chapter 8 RepeatedTreatment Design Using a RepeatedMeasures Analysis of Variance 183
Research Problem 184
Study Variables 185
Research Design 186
Stating the Omnibus (Comprehensive) Research Question 189
Hypothesis Testing Step 1: Establish the Alternative (Research) Hypothesis (Ha) 190
Hypothesis Testing Step 2: Establish the Null Hypothesis (H0) 191
Hypothesis Testing Step 3: Decide on a Risk Level (Alpha) of Rejecting the True H0 Considering Type I and II Errors and Power 192
Hypothesis Testing Step 4: Choose Appropriate Statistic and Its Sampling Distribution to Test the H0 Assuming H0 Is True 195
Hypothesis Testing Step 5: Select Sample, Collect Data, Screen Data, Compute Statistic, and Determine Probability Estimates 196
Hypothesis Testing Step 6: Make Decision Regarding the H0 and Interpret Post Hoc Effect Sizes and Confidence Intervals 216
Formula Calculations of the Study Results 218
Chapter 9 Randomized Factorial Experimental Design Using a Factorial ANOVA 231
Research Problem 232
Study Variables 232
Research Design 233
Stating the Omnibus (Comprehensive) Research Questions 237
Hypothesis Testing Step 1: Establish the Alternative (Research) Hypothesis (Ha) 238
Hypothesis Testing Step 2: Establish the Null Hypothesis (H0) 240
Hypothesis Testing Step 3: Decide on a Risk Level (Alpha) of Rejecting the True H0 Considering Type I and II Errors and Power 241
Hypothesis Testing Step 4: Choose Appropriate Statistic and Its Sampling Distribution to Test the H0 Assuming H0 Is True 247
Hypothesis Testing Step 5: Select Sample, Collect Data, Screen Data, Compute Statistic, and Determine Probability Estimates 248
Hypothesis Testing Step 6: Make Decision Regarding the H0 and Interpret Post Hoc Effect Sizes and Confidence Intervals 271
Formula Calculations of the Study Results 278
Chapter 10 Analysis of Covariance 297
Research Problem 298
Study Variables 299
Research Design 300
Stating the Omnibus (Comprehensive) Research Question 301
Hypothesis Testing Step 1: Establish the Alternative (Research) Hypothesis (Ha) 301
Hypothesis Testing Step 2: Establish the Null Hypothesis (H0) 302
Hypothesis Testing Step 3: Decide on a Risk Level (Alpha) of Rejecting the True H0 Considering Type I and II Errors and Power 302
Hypothesis Testing Step 4: Choose Appropriate Statistic and Its Sampling Distribution to Test the H0 Assuming H0 Is True 306
Hypothesis Testing Step 5: Select Sample, Collect Data, Screen Data, Compute Statistic, and Determine Probability Estimates 307
Hypothesis Testing Step 6: Make Decision Regarding the H0 and Interpret Post Hoc Effect Sizes and Confidence Intervals 324
Formula ANCOVA Calculations of the Study Results 327
ANCOVA Study Results 339
Chapter 11 Randomized Control Group and RepeatedTreatment Designs and Nonparametics 345
Research Problem 346
Study Variables 346
Research Design 347
Stating the Omnibus (Comprehensive) Research Question 349
Hypothesis Testing Step 1: Establish the Alternative (Research) Hypothesis (Ha) 349
Hypothesis Testing Step 2: Establish the Null Hypothesis (H0) 350
Hypothesis Testing Step 3: Decide on a Risk Level (Alpha) of Rejecting the True H0 Considering Type I and II Errors and Power 350
Hypothesis Testing Step 4: Choose Appropriate Statistic and Its Sampling Distribution to Test the H0 Assuming H0 Is True 354
Hypothesis Testing Step 5: Select Sample, Collect Data, Screen Data, Compute Statistic, and Determine Probability Estimates 355
Hypothesis Testing Step 6: Make Decision Regarding the H0 and Interpret Post Hoc Effect Sizes 370
Formula Calculations 376
Nonparametric Research Problem Two: Friedman’s Rank Test for Correlated Samples and Wilcoxon’s MatchedPairs SignedRanks Test 382
Chapter 12 Bivariate and Multivariate Correlation Methods Using Multiple Regression Analysis 401
Research Problem 402
Study Variables 402
Research Method 403
Stating the Omnibus (Comprehensive) Research Question 405
Hypothesis Testing Step 1: Establish the Alternative (Research) Hypothesis (Ha) 405
Hypothesis Testing Step 2: Establish the Null Hypothesis (H0) 406
Hypothesis Testing Step 3: Decide on a Risk Level (Alpha) of Rejecting the True H0 Considering Type I and II Errors and Power 406
Hypothesis Testing Step 4: Choose Appropriate Statistic and Its Sampling Distribution to Test the H0 Assuming H0 Is True 407
Hypothesis Testing Step 5: Select Sample, Collect Data, Screen Data, Compute Statistic, and Determine Probability Estimates 407
Hand Calculations of Statistics 423
Chapter 13 Understanding Quantitative Literature and Research 439
Interpretation of a Quantitative Research Article 440
References 461
Index 465
William E. Martin, EdD, is a professor and past chair of educational psychology in the College of Education, Northern Arizona University. He also served as senior scholar in the university's Faculty Research Center. His research areas are psychometric assessment, counselor development, psychosocial adjustment, and personenvironmentbased prevention and intervention methods.
Krista D. Bridgmon, PhD, is an assistant professor of psychology at Colorado State UniversityPueblo. Her research areas are doctoral student attrition, stress and coping, school counseling, and sport psychology.