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The Fund Industry: How Your Money is Managed

ISBN: 978-0-470-63425-7
544 pages
February 2011
The Fund Industry: How Your Money is Managed (0470634251) cover image


Every investor, student of finance and participant in the mutual fund industry needs to read this book The Fund Industry details how mutual funds are marketed, regulated, and invested in stocks and bonds. The book also describes the critical factors needed to choose a specific fund for your investment or retirement plan, including what to look for when reading prospectuses, shareholder reports and third party reviews. In addition, the book:
  • Discusses the spread of mutual funds to Asia, Europe, and Latin America
  • Compares mutual funds to other investment vehicles such as hedge funds and ETFs
  • Shows how to sort mutual funds by categories and subcategories based on security type and investment objective
  • Other titles by Pozen: Too Big to Save? How to Fix the U.S. Financial System, also by Wiley

Fundamentals of the Fund Industry is the most in-depth and up-to-date guide to navigating the mutual fund industry, written in an accessible style with many examples and charts.

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Table of Contents

Foreword by Don Phillips ix

Preface xiii

Acknowledgments xvii

SECTION ONE An Investor's Guide to Mutual Funds 1

CHAPTER 1 Investing through Mutual Funds 3

Advantages and Disadvantages of Mutual Funds 5

History and Growth 9

Regulators and Industry Associations 18

Chapter Summary 23

CHAPTER 2 How Mutual Funds Work 25

Buying and Selling Fund Shares 26

The Pass-Through Tax Status of Mutual Funds 29

A Virtual Corporation 31

Ethical Standards 39

Alternatives to Mutual Funds 43

Chapter Summary 49

CHAPTER 3 Researching Funds: The User Guides 51

Mutual Funds and Disclosure 51

The Summary Prospectus 56

Beyond the Summary Prospectus 63

Using the User Guides 69

Chapter Summary 71

CHAPTER 4 Comparing Mutual Funds 73

Delineating Your Own Investment Objectives 74

Evaluating Performance 77

The Taxonomy of Mutual Funds 83

Chapter Summary 99

SECTION TWO Mutual Fund Portfolio Management 101

CHAPTER 5 Portfolio Management of Stock Funds 103

Stock Research 104

Putting It All Together: Managing a Stock Fund 117

Chapter Summary 130

CHAPTER 6 Portfolio Management of Bond Funds 133

Bond Fund Holdings 133

Putting It All Together: Managing a Bond Fund 145

Chapter Summary 153


Defining Characteristics of Bonds 156

Key Analytical Measures 160

Risks of Bond Investments 164

CHAPTER 7 Portfolio Management of Money Market Funds 169

How—Exactly—the $1.00 NAV Works 170

Money Market Fund Holdings 175

Putting It All Together: Managing a Money Market Fund 181

Money Market Funds and the Financial System 184

Chapter Summary 187

CHAPTER 8 Implementing Portfolio Decisions: Buying and Selling Investments 189

The Importance of Trading 190

The Evolution of the U.S. Stock Markets 191

The Role of the Mutual Fund Trader 201

Trading in Bond Funds 210

Chapter Summary 212

CHAPTER 9 Mutual Funds as Institutional Investors 215

Mutual Funds as Stockholders and the Proxy Voting Process 216

Proxy Voting by Mutual Funds 220

Activism and Mutual Funds 224

Mutual Funds and Social Change 232

Proxy Voting Outside the United States 234

Chapter Summary 236

SECTION THREE Selling Investment Funds 239

CHAPTER 10 Retail Sales 241

What Sells Mutual Funds? 241

The Intermediary Channel 243

The Direct Channel: No-Load Firms and Fund Supermarkets 260

Cross-Channel Trends 264

Chapter Summary 271

CHAPTER 11 Retirement Plans and Mutual Funds 273

The Tax Benefits of Qualified Retirement Plans 274

401(k) Plans 278

Individual Retirement Accounts 293

The Future of Retirement Planning in the United States 298

Chapter Summary 302

CHAPTER 12 The Competition from Exchange-Traded Funds and Hedge Funds 305

Exchange-Traded Funds 305

Hedge Funds 319

Chapter Summary 333

SECTION FOUR Operations and Finance 335

CHAPTER 13 Customer Service 337

The Role of the Transfer Agent 337

Technology and Shareholder Servicing 349

Transfer Agents as an Industry 354

Chapter Summary 361

CHAPTER 14 Portfolio Recordkeeping and Valuation 363

A Day in the Life of the Fund Accountant 364

Valuation of Portfolio Holdings 370

Keeping Track of Portfolio Securities: The Custodian 376

A Critical Link: Investment Operations 379

Behind the Scenes: The Independent Auditor 384

Chapter Summary 388

CHAPTER 15 The Financial Dynamics of the Fund Management Industry 391

Expenses for Fund Investors 392

Management Fee Revenue: The Debate 398

Mergers and Acquisitions Involving Fund Sponsors 408

Chapter Summary 416

SECTION FIVE The Internationalization of Mutual Funds 419

CHAPTER 16 Cross-Border Investing 421

The Growth in Cross-Border Investing 421

Advantages and Risks of Investing Overseas 426

Operational Challenges of Investing Overseas 431

Putting It All Together: Managing a Global or

International Fund 435

Chapter Summary 442

CHAPTER 17 Cross-Border Asset Gathering 443

The Global Market for Investment Funds 444

Models for a Global Fund Business 450

The UCITS Model 456

European Pension Pooling 463

Chapter Summary 469

CHAPTER 18 The Market for Investment Funds: Beyond the United States and Europe 471

Asia 472

The Americas ex U.S. 487

Chapter Summary 495

Notes 497

About the Authors 515

Index 517

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Author Information

ROBERT POZEN is Chairman Emeritus of MFS Investment Management®, as well as a Senior Lecturer at the Harvard Business School and a Senior Fellow at the Brookings Institute. He was previously vice chairman of Fidelity Investments; chairman of the SEC Advisory Committee on improving financial reporting; and a member of the Presidential Commission to Strengthen Social Security. A prolific author of editorials in leading newspapers, in 2009 he published the book Too Big to Save?: How to Fix the U.S. Financial System. Pozen graduated summa cum laude from Harvard College and earned a doctor of laws from the Yale Law School where he was an editor of the Yale Law Journal.

THERESA HAMACHER, CFA, is President of NICSA, the National Investment Company Service Association, and the former chief investment officer for Pioneer Investment Management USA, where she supervised a team of over fifty investment professionals managing more than $15 billion in global equity and fixed income assets for mutual fund and institutional clients. Previously, she was the chief investment officer for Prudential Mutual Funds. In 1984, she ran the Prudential-Bache (Tax-Managed) Utility Fund, the top-performing mutual fund in the United States. She is coauthor of The Pocket Idiot's Guide to Investing in Stocks. Hamacher is a summa cum laude graduate of Yale College and a Chartered Financial Analyst.

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“I think most people will find The Fund Industry one of the most informative books they’ve read in quite a while. … It shows that mutual fund investors know mighty little about where they’ve put their hard-earned money.”
Brenda Jubin, Seeking Alpha, February 2011

“We can even envision this book as required reading for new employees of investment advisory fi rms or suggested reading for directors new to the investment company industry.”
The Investor’s Guide to Closed-End Funds, April 2011 a Jubin, Seeking Alpha, February 2011

“ … a valuable overview of the operations of the mutual funds industry.”
Pensions & Investments, April 2011

“… the book is more than worthwhile … it certainly makes the recommended reading list.”
The New York Times, April 2011

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Out Of The Shadows (with Video Link) 276.99 KB Click to Download
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Press Release

February 11, 2011
The Fund Industry

In 2009, more than 87 million Americans invested their money through mutual funds, using them as vehicles to save for such important life goals as the purchase of a home, a child’s education, or a comfortable retirement. Many businesses rely on money market mutual funds for help in managing their cash balances. Mutual funds are an increasingly popular savings vehicle in Europe, Asia, and other regions of the world. Despite its proliferation, it is a highly complex industry comprising tens of thousands of mutual funds worldwide with over $20 trillion in assets and offering different investment objectives and approaches to consumers through multiple channels amid detailed regulations that are continually evolving.

In THE FUND INDUSTRY (Wiley; February 2011; $75.00; 978-0-470-63425-7; Hardcover), Robert Pozen, Chairman Emeritus of MFS Investment Management and a senior lecturer at Harvard Business School, and Theresa Hamacher, President of NICSA (The National Investment Company Service Association) and a former mutual fund chief investment officer, examine how mutual funds are structured and discuss the key laws and regulations governing their operations. They go behind the scenes to explain how fund managers select investments for fund portfolios, sell fund shares around the globe, and provide service to fund shareholders.


  • Discusses the history and growth of mutual funds, as well as how they rank in comparison to alternative investment vehicles, such as ETFs and hedge funds
  • Examines how to evaluate funds, categorizing them by security type and investment objective and researching them using the prospectus, shareholder reports, and third-party reviews
  • Explains how mutual funds are sold through brokers, banks, insurance agents, retirement plans, and fund supermarkets and the roles of the independent directors, transfer agents, and fund accountants
  • Addresses the global fund industry, summarizing trends in asset gathering outside the United States, and money market funds, a category that has received much more attention as a result of the credit crisis of 2008
  • Includes a companion website that provides supplementary materials, including a teacher’s guide

THE FUND INDUSTRY is an in-depth guide to navigating the mutual fund industry, written in an accessible style with many examples and charts.

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Instructors Resources
Wiley Instructor Companion Site
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