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Practical Tunnel Construction

ISBN: 978-0-470-64197-2
304 pages
November 2012
Practical Tunnel Construction (0470641975) cover image

The only modern guide to all aspects of practical tunnel construction

Practical Tunnel Construction fills a void in the literature for a practical guide to tunnel construction. By taking the reader through a brief introduction and history to a comprehensive discussion of how the geological factors affect tunneling, the author covers the stages and technology that are common today without using complex equations. Written for the individual who does not have an extensive background in tunneling but who has to make tunneling decisions, the various tunneling methods are discussed to help in the determination of the appropriate method. The methods discussed are: hand mining, drill/blast, Tunnel Boring Machine (TBM), New Austrian Tunnelling Method (NATM), Norwegian Method of Tunnelling (NMT), Roadheader, Earth Pressure Balance Machine (EPBM), and Slurry Pressure Balance Machine (SPBM). This book focuses on driven tunnels.

This versatile handbook:

  • Offers clear and accessible coverage of the state of the art in tunnel construction
  • Introduces the essentials of design and construction of many types of tunnels, including TBM, EPB, Roadheader, NATM, drill and blast, and soft ground tunneling
  • Provides nontechnical guidance on selecting the most appropriate tunneling methods for various situations
  • Includes a brief history of tunneling and an introduction to geotechnical considerations
  • Discusses tunnel access shaft construction, mucking methods, tunnel haulage, grout, water handling, and much more

Practical Tunnel Construction is an important resource for students, construction managers, tunnel designers, municipal engineers, or engineers who are employed by government agencies or corporations that are exploring the feasibility of planning and designing or building a tunnel.

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Preface xiii

Acknowledgments xv

1 Introduction 1

2 Geotechnical Considerations—Rock 5

Site Investigation 5

Borings 6

Obtaining Samples and Testing of Rock 7

Geophysics 8

Types of Rock 10

Igneous Rocks 10

Sedimentary Rocks 11

Metamorphic Rocks 14

Discontinuities 15

Folds 16

Fractures 18

Faults 18

Joints 18

Shear Zones 19

Hardness 20

Tunnel Orientation 23

Tunneling Under the Water Table 25

Rock Mass Classification 27

References 63

3 Soft Ground (Soil) 65

Engineering Properties 67

Squeezing Ground 72

Swelling Ground 72

References 80

4 Soft Ground Tunneling 81

Unitary Excavation 81

Full-Arch Mining 83

Shields 88

Slurry Machines 91

Earth Pressure Balance Machine 97

References 104

5 Tunneling In Rock 105

Factors Considered When Selecting Tunneling Method 106

Tunneling in Rock by Drilling and Blasting 106

Drilling 107

Explosives 112

Blasting 124

Tunnel Driving by Blasting 138

Hydraulic Impact Hammer 156

References 157

6 Roadheaders 159

Operating Principle 159

Mucking 161

Machine Parameters 164

Cutting Bits 164

Operational Parameters 166

Roadheader Cutting Capacity 166

Performance Prediction 167

Advantages of Roadheader 168

Roadheader Shortcomings 168

References 169

7 Tunnel-Boring Machines 171

History of Tunnel-Boring Machine 171

Channel Tunnel 172

Beaumont/English Machine 172

Operating Principle 176

Cutting Tools 179

Kerf Principle 181

Disc Cutter Spacing 181

Backup Equipment 182

References 185

8 Ground Control 187

Support System Objectives 187

Types of Rock Support 188

Active Support 188

Passive Support 197

References 208

9 Mucking and Haulage 209

Mucking Methods 209

Load–Haul–Dump Machines 211

Mine Trucks 212

Continuous Mucking Machine 213

Rail Transport 214

References 222

10 Grout 223

Objectives of Grouting 223

Geotechnical 223

Grouting Materials 228

Chemical Grout 230

Grouting Pressures 246

Stage Grouting 252

Backfilling 253

Contact Grouting 257

Grouting Equipment 260

Operating Tips 269

References 270

11 Portals and Shafts 273

Portals 273

Shafts 277

Locating Shafts 278

Shape of Shafts 278

Construction 279

Collar 280

Wood Sheet Piles 282

Steel Sheet Piles 283

Soldier Piles and Lagging 285

Ribs and Lagging 286

Liner Plate 286

Slurry Walls 289

Secant Piles 291

Ground Freezing 292

Drilling and Blasting 292

Rock Shaft Mucking and Sinking 295

Raise Borer 296

Boxhole Borer 301

Raise Climber 302

Other Mechanical Methods 304

Reference 305

12 Sprayed Concrete (Shotcrete) 307

Dry Mix 308

Wet Mix 310

Additives 314

Reinforcement 315

Steel Fibers 315

Synthetic Fibers 316

Welded Wire Fabric 316

Reinforcing Bar 316

Application 317

References 322

13 New Austrian Tunneling Method and Norwegian Method of Tunneling 323

References 334

14 Water Handling 335

Panning 335

Pumping 335

Dewatering 336

Deep Wells 336

Wellpoint 337

Compressed Air 340

Ground Freezing 342

Reference 347

15 Trenchless Excavation 349

Ramming 350

Auger Boring 351

Horizontal Directional Drilling 353

Pipejacking and Microtunneling 354

Drive Lengths 356

Types of Excavators 359

Box Jacking 362

Reference 363

16 Tunnel Ventilation 365

Introduction 365

Fundamentals of Air Flow 368

Fan Characteristic Curves 374

References 379

17 Tunnel Lining 381

Shotcrete 384

One- and Two-Pass Lining 384

Concrete Segments 384

Cast-in-Place Concrete 387

References 389

Bibliography 391

Index 399

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GARY B. HEMPHILL, PhD, PE, has more than thirty years of experience in the domestic and international construction industry. He has served as the project manager, designer, estimator, construction manager, field engineer, tunnel/shaft engineer, and project engineer on major projects throughout the world, including the Dallas Area Rapid Transit rail extension and the Taiwan High Speed Rail Project. He is the author of Blasting Operations.

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