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Enhancing Building Performance

ISBN: 978-0-470-65759-1
360 pages
March 2012, Wiley-Blackwell
Enhancing Building Performance (0470657596) cover image

Building Performance Evaluation (BPE) informs and enhances the usability and sustainability of building designs with lessons learned from evaluation of building performance throughout the building life cycle, from initial planning through occupancy to adaptive re-use.  A key feature of BPE is that it examines design and technical performance of buildings alongside human performance criteria. That is, it seeks to examine facilities in order to determine whether they will work for the people that will use and occupy them. Rigorous BPE helps to improve design practice by providing feedback on the effectiveness of the choices made about the building to ensure that its design is optimised for stakeholders’ uses.

 

The overarching theme for Enhancing Building Performance is to present the next generation of BPE work.  The book provides an updated systematic approach for BPE as well as chapters written by experts from around the world who demonstrate how to apply BPE to enhance building design.  Topics covered include: evidence-based and integrative design processes, evaluation methods and tools, and education and knowledge transfer.  In addition, case studies provide specific examples of how BPE has been used to study such things as the impact of workplace design on human productivity and innovation.

 

Written primarily for design professionals and facility managers who wish to use BPE to deliver improved building performance that is responsive to the needs of stakeholders, Enhancing Building Performance will also be of great value to researchers and students across a range of architecture and construction disciplines.

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Contributors x

Preface xxi

Acknowledgements xxv

Foreword xxvii
Duncan A. Joiner

I Introduction: Building Performance Evaluation (BPE) Process Model 1

1 Introduction to Building Performance Evaluation: Milestones in Evolution 3
Shauna Mallory-Hill, Wolfgang F. E. Preiser and Chris Watson

1.1 Enhancing building performance 3

1.2 Emergence of person-environment research 4

1.3 Maturation of Post-Occupancy Evaluation (1975–1985) 6

1.4 POE as a distinct discipline (1985–1995) 7

1.5 Feeding forward: from POE to BPE (1995–2005) 9

1.6 Ongoing global efforts in BPE (2005 +) 11

1.7 Conclusion 12

2 A Process Model for Building Performance Evaluation (BPE) 19
Wolfgang F. E. Preiser and Ulrich Schramm

2.1 Introduction 19

2.2 Description of the process model for BPE 19

2.3 The performance concept and the building process 25

2.4 Conclusion 29

II Design Processes and Evaluation 33

3 The Integrative Design Process 35
Rodney C. McDonald and Sonja Persram

3.1 Introduction 35

3.2 Origin, evolution and definitions of IDP 36

3.3 Highlights of others’ work: systems thinking in IDP and a unitive process 39

3.4 The means to motivation: engaging clients in sustainability prior to IDP 43

3.5 The integrative regulatory process 45

3.6 Conclusion 46

4 Participatory/Collaborative Design Process 48
Henry Sanoff

4.1 Introduction 48

4.2 Background 49

4.3 Community participation 51

4.4 Conclusion 57

5 Enhancing Design Programming: The Case of Detroit Collaborative Design Center and Detroit Hispanic Development Corporation 60
Sheri Blake

5.1 Introduction 60

5.2 Participatory design process and intent 61

5.3 Enhancing the process 69

5.4 Conclusions 72

6 Patterns in Post-Occupancy Evaluation 75
Chris Watson

6.1 Introduction 75

6.2 Principles 75

6.3 Communities of interest 77

6.4 Process 77

6.5 Evaluating environmental impact 78

6.6 Pattern language format 79

6.7 Recurring findings 79

6.8 Communicating stakeholders' experience of architecture 85

6.9 Conclusion 85

III Case Studies 87

7 The Changing Meaning of Workspace: Planning Space and Technology in the Work Environment 89
Jacqueline C. Vischer

7.1 Introduction 89

7.2 The 'X' organization – building for the future 90

7.3 Involving users for better workspace design 91

7.4 Building and workspace outcomes 94

7.5 Conclusion 96

8 Programming Spaces for Innovation 98
Martin Hodulak

8.1 Introduction 98

8.2 Spaces for innovation 98

8.3 Understanding requirements 99

8.4 Analysis methods 100

8.5 Key requirements for innovation spaces 102

8.6 Conclusion 107

9 Assessing Building Performance for Local Government Offices in Japan 109
Akikazu Kato, Toru Ando and Mina Kitazawa

9.1 Introduction 109

9.2 Organizational development of the Mie Prefecture Government office 110

9.3 Example of office layout changes 110

9.4 Work style classification studies 112

9.5 Analysis of worker activities 114

9.6 Analysis of work style classifications 116

9.7 Analysis of workers’ collaboration activities 117

9.8 Relationships among work communication activities 118

9.9 Conclusions 118

10 Developing Occupancy Feedback to Improve Low Carbon Housing 120
Fionn Stevenson

10.1 Introduction 120

10.2 Background 120

10.3 A framework for evaluating interactive adaptability 121

10.4 Low carbon home case study 121

10.5 Where next? 127

10.6 Conclusions 128

11 Evaluating Federal Workplaces in the US: The Case of the General Services Administration 130
Kevin Kelly

11.1 Introduction 130

11.2 Background 130

11.3 Survey results 133

11.4 Reflections on 'efficiency' and 'expression' 135

11.5 Re-deploying the survey to measure post-occupancy success 137

11.6 Conclusion 137

12 Assessing Qatar University’s Campus Outdoor Spaces: Design Intentions Versus Users’ Reactions 139
Ashraf M. Salama

12.1 Introduction 139

12.2 Overview of the literature on campus outdoor spaces 140

12.3 Campus features – architect’s statements 141

12.4 Assessing outdoor spaces: a multilayered methodology 142

12.5 Key findings 147

12.6 Conclusion 150

13 Building Performance Evaluation (BPE) and the Role of Perceived Values in Heritage Preservation – A Research Case for Italy 152
Carlotta Fontana

13.1 Introduction 152

13.2 Background 152

13.3 A performance-based approach for sustainable reuse 154

13.4 Counseling for communities: a performance-based approach at different scales 154

13.5 Conclusions 161

IV Research Methods and Tools 165

14 Evaluating the Impact of Green Building on Worker Productivity and Health: A Literature Review 167
Shauna Mallory-Hill and Anna Westlund

14.1 Introduction 167

14.2 Background 168

14.3 Literature review method 168

14.4 Performance indicators and data collection techniques 169

14.5 Conclusions 174

15 Quantitative (GIS) and Qualitative (BPE) Assessments of Library Performance 179
Wolfgang F. E. Preiser and Xinhao Wang

15.1 Introduction 179

15.2 Background 179

15.3 Project design and methodology 180

15.4 Results 183

15.5 Recommendations 187

15.6 Conclusion 188

16 Applying MAPLE/D and BPE to Complex Building Types 191
Monika Schill-Fendl

16.1 Introduction 191

16.2 Background: the meta-method MAPLE/D 191

16.3 Example: POE of a large-scale laboratory building complex 199

16.4 Links between BPE and MAPLE/D 201

16.5 Conclusion 201

17 Stimulating Physically Active Behavior Through Good Building Design 203
Edward Finch, Paul Wilson and Lindsey Dugdill

17.1 Introduction 203

17.2 The active imperative 204

17.3 Servicescapes 205

17.4 Layering of built environment solutions 206

17.5 Evaluating the capacity of buildings to encourage physically active behavior 209

17.6 Conclusion 210

18 Evidence-Based Decision-Making on Office Accommodation: Accommodation Choice Model 213
Theo J. M. van der Voordt, Yolanda M. D. Ikiz-Koppejan and Anca Gosselink

18.1 Introduction 213

18.2 Modeling accommodation processes 213

18.3 Elaboration of the model 215

18.4 Justification of the accommodation choice model 219

18.5 Application in practice 219

18.6 Conclusion 221

19 Evaluation Through Computational Building Performance Simulation 223
Jan L. M. Hensen

19.1 Introduction 223

19.2 Background 223

19.3 Building performance simulation 224

19.4 State-of-the-art 226

19.5 Quality assurance of simulation based decisions 229

19.6 Conclusion 232

20 Incorporating Occupant Perceptions and Behavior into BIM 234
Clinton J. Andrews, Jennifer A. Senick and Richard E. Wener

20.1 Introduction 234

20.2 BIM and the design process 235

20.3 Linking BPE and BIM 235

20.4 Simulating behavior 236

20.5 Metrics 238

20.6 Illustrative simulation model 238

20.7 Conclusions: implications for emerging practice 244

V Education 247

21 Post-Occupancy Evaluation in Brazil: Its Impact on Professional Practice 249
Sheila W. Ornstein, Rosaria Ono, César Imai, Ana J. G. Limongi França and Maria Beatriz Barbosa

21.1 Introduction 249

21.2 POE methodology 250

21.3 Case studies 252

21.4 Conclusions 257

22 Building Performance Evaluation (BPE) in the Construction Project Management Curriculum 259
Ulrich Schramm

22.1 Introduction 259

22.2 The school and its programs 259

22.3 BPE in the curriculum 261

22.4 Outline of selected lectures and seminars 263

22.5 Employment opportunities 272

22.6 Conclusions 274

23 Evaluation Research and Inquiry Based Learning (IBL) in Architecture and Urbanism: Consumption Versus Production of Knowledge 277
Ashraf M. Salama

23.1 Introduction 277

23.2 Idiosyncrasies on knowledge delivery and acquisition 278

23.3 Evaluation research and inquiry based learning (IBL) 279

23.4 Evaluation research: a paradigm for utilizing the built environment as an open textbook 280

23.5 Conclusion: Evaluation research and seeking a new form of pedagogy 284

24 Post Tower Evaluation: User-Needs Analysis (UNA) in German Student Education 286
Rotraut Walden

24.1 Introduction 286

24.2 Background 286

24.3 Prelminary studies 287

24.4 Stakeholder questionnaire 288

24.5 Data collection – the walkthrough 292

24.6 Results 292

24.7 Conclusions 296

25 Ethnographic Methods in Support of Architectural Practice 299
Eleftherios Pavlides and Galen Cranz

25.1 Introduction 299

25.2 The nature of the student research is ethnographic 300

25.3 Two kinds of findings 303

25.4 Benefits of student research projects 307

25.5 Conclusion 310

VI Epilogue 313

26 Reflections on Stage M: The Dog that Didn’t Bark 315
Francis Duffy

26.1 Introduction 315

26.2 Background 315

26.3 Stage M feedback on meeting client objectives 316

26.4 Conclusions 319

Endnotes 319

References 320

Index 321

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Shauna Mallory-Hill, PhD, M. Arch, B.E.S., LEED AP BD+C is Assistant Professor in the Faculty of Architecture at the University of Manitoba, Canada. With nearly two decades of research and teaching involvement in the discipline of building performance evaluation, she is the co-ordinator for the International Building Performance Evaluation research consortium which facilitates the work of BPE practitioners around the world.

Wolfgang F.E. Preiser, PhD, M.Arch, Dipl. -Ing is Professor Emeritus in the School of Architecture and Interior Design at the University of Cincinnati, USA. He has 35 years experience in teaching, research and consulting, lecturing around the world, and publishing 18 books.

Christopher Watson, BSc, B.Arch, ANZIA, BOAQ is an Architect with considerable experience in evaluating a very wide range of building types in diverse situations.

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