Terrestrial HydrometeorologyISBN: 9780470659380
472 pages
January 2012, WileyBlackwell

Terrestrial Hydrometeorology is the first graduatelevel text with sufficient breadth and depth to be used in hydrology departments to teach relevant aspects of meteorology, and in meteorological departments to teach relevant aspects of hydrology, and to serve as an introductory text to teach the emerging discipline of hydrometeorology.
The book will be essential reading for graduate students studying surface water hydrology, meteorology, and hydrometeorology. It can also be used in advanced undergraduate courses, and will be welcomed by academic and professional hydrologists and meteorologists worldwide.
Additional resources for this book can be found at: http://www.wiley.com/go/shuttleworth/hydrometeorology.
Preface xviii
Acknowledgements xix
1 Terrestrial Hydrometeorology and the Global Water Cycle 1
Introduction 1
Water in the Earth system 2
Components of the global hydroclimate system 4
Atmosphere 5
Hydrosphere 8
Cryosphere 9
Lithosphere 9
Biosphere 10
Anthroposphere 10
Important points in this chapter 12
2 Water Vapor in the Atmosphere 14
Introduction 14
Latent heat 14
Atmospheric water vapor content 15
Ideal Gas Law 16
Virtual temperature 17
Saturated vapor pressure 18
Measures of saturation 20
Measuring the vapor pressure of air 21
Important points in this chapter 23
3 Vertical Gradients in the Atmosphere 25
Introduction 25
Hydrostatic pressure law 26
Adiabatic lapse rates 27
Dry adiabatic lapse rate 27
Moist adiabatic lapse rate 28
Environmental lapse rate 28
Vertical pressure and temperature gradients 29
Potential temperature 30
Virtual potential temperature 31
Atmospheric stability 32
Static stability parameter 32
Important points in this chapter 34
4 Surface Energy Fluxes 36
Introduction 36
Latent and sensible heat fluxes 37
Energy balance of an ideal surface 38
Net radiation, Rn 38
Latent heat flux, lE 39
Sensible heat flux, H 39
Soil heat flux, G 39
Physical energy storage, St 40
Biochemical energy storage, P 40
Advected energy, Ad 41
Flux sign convention 41
Evaporative fraction and Bowen ratio 45
Energy budget of open water 46
Important points in this chapter 46
5 Terrestrial Radiation 48
Introduction 48
Blackbody radiation laws 49
Radiation exchange for ‘gray’ surfaces 51
Integrated radiation parameters for natural surfaces 52
Maximum solar radiation at the top of atmosphere 54
Maximum solar radiation at the ground 56
Atmospheric attenuation of solar radiation 58
Actual solar radiation at the ground 59
Longwave radiation 59
Net radiation at the surface 62
Height dependence of net radiation 63
Important points in this chapter 64
6 Soil Temperature and Heat Flux 66
Introduction 66
Soil surface temperature 66
Subsurface soil temperatures 67
Thermal properties of soil 68
Density of soil, rs 69
Specific heat of soil, cs 70
Heat capacity per unit volume, Cs 70
Thermal conductivity, ks 70
Thermal diffusivity, as 71
Formal description of soil heat flow 71
Thermal waves in homogeneous soil 72
Important points in this chapter 75
7 Measuring Surface Heat Fluxes 77
Introduction 77
Measuring solar radiation 77
Daily estimates of cloud cover 77
Thermoelectric pyranometers 78
Photoelectric pyranometers 79
Measuring net radiation 80
Measuring soil heat flux 81
Measuring latent and sensible heat 82
Micrometeorological measurement of surface energy fluxes 83
Bowen ratio/energy budget method 83
Eddy correlation method 85
Evaporation measurement from integrated water loss 87
Evaporation pans 88
Watersheds and lakes 89
Lysimeters 90
Soil moisture depletion 91
Comparison of evaporation measuring methods 91
Important points in this chapter 94
8 General Circulation Models 96
Introduction 96
What are General Circulation Models? 96
How are General Circulation Models used? 98
How do General Circulation Models work? 100
Sequence of operations 100
Solving the dynamics 102
Calculating the physics 103
Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) 104
Important points in this chapter 105
9 Global Scale Influences on Hydrometeorology 107
Introduction 107
Global scale influences on atmospheric circulation 107
Planetary interrelationship 109
Latitudinal differences in solar energy input 109
Seasonal perturbations 109
Daily perturbations 109
Persistent perturbations 109
Contrast in ocean to continent surface exchanges 109
Continental topography 109
Temporary perturbations 110
Perturbations in oceanic circulation 110
Perturbations in atmospheric content 110
Perturbations in continental land cover 110
Latitudinal imbalance in radiant energy 110
Lower atmosphere circulation 111
Latitudinal bands of pressure and wind 111
Hadley circulation 112
Mean lowlevel circulation 113
Mean upper level circulation 115
Ocean circulation 116
Oceanic influences on continental hydroclimate 118
Monsoon flow 118
Tropical cyclones 119
El Niño Southern Oscillation 120
Pacific Decadal Oscillation 122
North Atlantic Oscillation 123
Water vapor in the atmosphere 123
Important points in this chapter 126
10 Formation of Clouds 128
Introduction 128
Cloud generating mechanisms 129
Cloud condensation nuclei 131
Saturated vapor pressure of curved surfaces 132
Cloud droplet size, concentration and terminal velocity 133
Ice in clouds 134
Cloud formation processes 135
Thermal convection 135
Foehn effect 136
Extratropical fronts and cyclones 138
Cloud genera 140
Important points in this chapter 141
11 Formation of Precipitation 143
Introduction 143
Precipitation formation in warm clouds 144
Precipitation formation in other clouds 146
Which clouds produce rain? 148
Precipitation form 149
Raindrop size distribution 150
Rainfall rates and kinetic energy 151
Forms of frozen precipitation 151
Other forms of precipitation 152
Important points in this chapter 153
12 Precipitation Measurement and Observation 155
Introduction 155
Precipitation measurement using gauges 156
Instrumental errors 157
Site and location errors 157
Gauge designs 160
Areal representativeness of gauge measurements 162
Snowfall measurement 165
Precipitation measurement using groundbased radar 168
Precipitation measurement using satellite systems 171
Cloud mapping and characterization 171
Passive measurement of cloud properties 172
Spaceborne radar 173
Important points in this chapter 174
13 Precipitation Analysis in Time 176
Introduction 176
Precipitation climatology 177
Annual variations 177
Intraannual variations 177
Daily variations 180
Trends in precipitation 181
Running means 182
Cumulative deviations 183
Mass curve 184
Oscillations in precipitation 186
System signatures 187
Intensityduration relationships 189
Statistics of extremes 190
Conditional probabilities 195
Important points in this chapter 196
14 Precipitation Analysis in Space 198
Introduction 198
Mapping precipitation 199
Areal mean precipitation 200
Isohyetal method 200
Triangle method 202
Theissen method 202
Spatial organization of precipitation 203
Design storms and areal reduction factors 205
Probable maximum precipitation 207
Spatial correlation of precipitation 209
Important points in this chapter 211
15 Mathematical and Conceptual Tools of Turbulence 213
Introduction 213
Signature and spectrum of atmospheric turbulence 213
Mean and fluctuating components 216
Rules of averaging for decomposed variables 217
Variance and standard deviation 219
Measures of the strength of turbulence 220
Mean and turbulent kinetic energy 220
Linear correlation coefficient 221
Kinematic flux 223
Advective and turbulent fluxes 225
Important points in this chapter 229
16 Equations of Atmospheric Flow in the ABL 231
Introduction 231
Time rate of change in a fluid 232
Conservation of momentum in the atmosphere 234
Pressure forces 235
Viscous flow in fluids 236
Axisspecific forces 239
Combined momentum forces 242
Conservation of mass of air 243
Conservation of atmospheric moisture 244
Conservation of energy 245
Conservation of a scalar quantity 246
Summary of equations of atmospheric flow 247
Important points in this chapter 247
17 Equations of Turbulent Flow in the ABL 248
Introduction 248
Fluctuations in the ideal gas law 248
The Boussinesq approximation 249
Neglecting subsidence 250
Geostrophic wind 251
Divergence equation for turbulent fluctuations 252
Conservation of momentum in the turbulent ABL 252
Conservation of moisture, heat, and scalars in the turbulent ABL 254
Neglecting molecular diffusion 255
Important points in this chapter 258
18 Observed ABL Profiles: Higher Order Moments 259
Introduction 259
Nature and evolution of the ABL 259
Daytime ABL profiles 261
Nighttime ABL profiles 263
Higher order moments 265
Prognostic equations for turbulent departures 265
Prognostic equations for turbulent kinetic energy 269
Prognostic equations for variance of moisture and heat 271
Important points in this chapter 276
19 Turbulent Closure, K Theory, and Mixing Length 277
Introduction 277
Richardson number 277
Turbulent closure 279
Low order closure schemes 280
Local, first order closure 281
Mixing length theory 283
Important points in this chapter 288
20 Surface Layer Scaling and Aerodynamic Resistance 289
Introduction 289
Dimensionless gradients 290
Obukhov length 292
Fluxgradient relationships 293
Returning fluxes to natural units 294
Resistance analogues and aerodynamic resistance 296
Important points in this chapter 299
21 Canopy Processes and Canopy Resistances 300
Introduction 300
Boundary layer exchange processes 301
Shelter factors 306
Stomatal resistance 308
Energy budget of a dry leaf 310
Energy budget of a dry canopy 311
Important points in this chapter 314
22 Whole Canopy Interactions 316
Introduction 316
Wholecanopy aerodynamics and canopy structure 317
Excess resistance 319
Roughness sublayer 321
Wet canopies 323
Equilibrium evaporation 325
Evaporation into an unsaturated atmosphere 327
Important points in this chapter 332
23 Daily Estimates of Evaporation 334
Introduction 334
Daily average values of weather variables 335
Temperature, humidity, and wind speed 335
Net radiation 337
Open water evaporation 339
Reference crop evapotranspiration 341
PenmanMonteith equation estimation of ERC 342
Radiationbased estimation of ERC 344
Temperaturebased estimation of ERC 345
Evaporation panbased estimation of ERC 346
Evaporation from unstressed vegetation: the MattShuttleworth approach 348
Evaporation from water stressed vegetation 353
Important points in this chapter 355
24 Soil Vegetation Atmosphere Transfer Schemes 359
Introduction 359
Basis and origin of landsurface submodels 359
Developing realism in SVATS 362
Plotscale, onedimensional ‘micrometeorological’ models 364
Improving representation of hydrological processes 367
Improving representation of carbon dioxide exchange 368
Ongoing developments in land surface submodels 370
Important points in this chapter 373
25 Sensitivity to Land Surface Exchanges 380
Introduction 380
Influence of land surfaces on weather and climate 381
A. The influence of existing landatmosphere interactions 383
1. Effect of topography on convection and precipitation 383
2. Contribution by land surfaces to atmospheric water availability 385
B. The influence of transient changes in land surfaces 385
1. Effect of transient changes in soil moisture 385
2. Effect of transient changes in vegetation cover 388
3. Effect of transient changes in frozen precipitation cover 389
4. Combined effect of transient changes 391
C. The influence of imposed persistent changes in land cover 392
1. Effect of imposed land cover change on near surface observations 392
2. Effect of imposed landcover change on regionalscale climate 393
3. Effect of imposed heterogeneity in land cover 395
Important points in this chapter 398
26 Example Questions and Answers 404
Introduction 404
Example questions 404
Example Answers 418
Index 441
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