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Integrated Vector Management: Controlling Vectors of Malaria and Other Insect Vector Borne Diseases

ISBN: 978-0-470-65966-3
248 pages
October 2011, Wiley-Blackwell
Integrated Vector Management: Controlling Vectors of Malaria and Other Insect Vector Borne Diseases (0470659661) cover image
Diseases transmitted by insects continue to have a major impact on human populations. Malaria, dengue, onchocerciasis, sleeping sickness and leishmaniasis all adversely affect man. Malaria is one of the most important causes of child mortality and reduces economic development in many countries, with agricultural productivity often greatly reduced, as many vectors are active in the wet season favourable for crop production. Vector control is crucial to reduce the extent to which drugs are needed to treat the diseases, as the parasite can become resistant, or the drugs are often too expensive for those living in rural areas and urban slums most affected by these diseases.

Chemical control of vectors is often the only method that can reduce vector populations in a disease epidemic, but with vectors developing resistance to insecticides, there is increasing awareness that a single control method is often insufficient and also that chemical control must be integrated where possible with other control measures.

In Integrated Vector Management, Graham Matthews covers the main chemical methods of vector control, including the use of indoor residual spraying, space treatments, the use of treated bed nets and larviciding, but also stresses the importance of drainage schemes and improvement of houses to prevent access of indoor vectors, techniques that have largely been responsible for reducing the risk of vector borne diseases in Europe and the USA. This book combines practical information from successful vector control programmes, including early use of DDT, and recent research into a vital resource for all those now involved in combating insect vector borne diseases.

Integrated Vector Management is an essential tool, not only for medical entomologists and those directly involved in government health departments, but also for all those who provide the skills and management needed to operate successful area-wide vector management programmes. Libraries in all universities and research establishments world-wide, where biological sciences, medicine and agriculture are studied and taught should have multiple copies of this important book.

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Preface

Acknowledgements

1 Introduction

Insect vectors

Distribution of vectors

Mosquitoes

Anopheles spp.

Aedes spp.

Culex spp.

Flies

Simulium spp.

Glossina spp. tsetse flies

Phlebotomine sand flies

Musca domestica and other synanthropic spp.

Other vectors

Triatomine bugs

Chemical control

Hazard and toxicity

Toxicity

Insecticides

WHO recommendations

Formulations

Packaging and storage

Waste disposal

Conclusion

References

2 Indoor Residual Spraying

Equipment for indoor residual spraying

Spray volume

Insecticides

Operator exposure

Resident exposure

Implementation of indoor residual spraying

Village intervention teams

Planning programmes

Insecticides

Equipment required

Storage

Training

Monitoring

Environmental assessment

Evaluation

Economics

Conclusion

References

3 Space Treatment

Requirements for space treatments

Equipment for space treatments

Portable equipment

Mist treatments

Vehicle mounted equipment

Aerial application

Insecticides

Planning

Assessment of space sprays

Monitoring

Conclusion

References

4 Bed Nets and Treated Clothing

Material

Mesh size

Shape

Insecticide

Insecticide impregnation

Impact of washing nets

Distribution of nets

Trial data

Operational use

Treated clothing

Impregnated sheeting

Conclusion

References

5 Larviciding

Larvicide application

Mosquito control

Oils

Insecticides

Application of mosquito larvicides

Knapsack spraying

Motorised equipment

Aerial application for mosquito control

Application of aerial sprays

Application of granules

Ground application

Aerial application

Monitoring

Black flies

Insecticides

Aerial application of larvicides for black fly control

Boat application

Applications in small streams

Monitoring

Conclusion

References

6 Integrated Vector Management

Cultural controls

House design

Drainage and water management schemes

Personal protection

Impregnated clothing

Insecticide treated bed nets

Repellents

Barrier treatments

Implementation of IVM

An example of IVM at Copper mines in Zambia

Costs

Development of new technology

Conclusion

References

7 Other Insects – Flies, Cockroaches and Bed Bugs

Flies

Refuse dumps

Space treatments

Mist treatments

Cockroaches

Traps

Sprays

Baits

Bed bugs

Conclusion

References

8 Looking Ahead

New insecticides?

Can insecticides with new modes of action be developed?

Insecticide resistance

Bio-pesticides

Spray technology

Electrostatic spraying?

Different sprayers?

Different nozzles?

Using a paint

Innovative application technique

Genetically modified mosquitoes

Attractants

Urbanisation

Economics

Conclusion

References

Appendix A: Calibration

Appendix B: Conversion Tables

Index

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Graham Matthews is Emeritus Professor of Pest Management at Imperial College, London, UK and, since 1972, he has advised the World Health Organization on the equipment used for vector control. Over the last decade he has also been Technical Director of the NGO, Yaounde Initiative Foundation and has been directly involved in vector control in Cameroon.
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 “This volume provides a nice overview of these approaches and some of the issues involved—droplet sizes, wallspraying tactics, and the like. It should be on the bookshelves of anyone involved in the fight against mosquitoes.”  (The Quarterly Review of Biology, 1 June 2013)

"Essential for anyone involved in vector control or its funding... The availability of the text as an e-book on Kindle will make it available to a much wider readership and provide a portable reference for travel and field work." (International Press Control, 1 November 2011)

“Matthews has done a great job in describing the many options we have to control vector-borne diseases...both for those starting in the field, as well as veterans, the book is of value and a worthy addition to the limited number of recent books on the topic...Five Stars” Bart Knols, MalariaWorld.org

 

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