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Sweeteners and Sugar Alternatives in Food Technology, 2nd Edition

Kay O'Donnell (Editor), Malcolm Kearsley (Editor)
ISBN: 978-0-470-65968-7
504 pages
October 2012, Wiley-Blackwell
Sweeteners and Sugar Alternatives in Food Technology, 2nd Edition (0470659688) cover image
This book provides a comprehensive and accessible source of information on all types of sweeteners and functional ingredients, enabling manufacturers to produce low sugar versions of all types of foods that not only taste and perform as well as sugar-based products, but also offer consumer benefits such as calorie reduction, dental health benefits, digestive health benefits and improvements in long term disease risk through strategies such as dietary glycaemic control.

Now in a revised and updated new edition which contains seven new chapters, part I of this volume addresses relevant digestive and dental health issues as well as nutritional considerations. Part II covers non-nutritive, high-potency sweeteners and, in addition to established sweeteners, includes information to meet the growing interest in naturally occurring sweeteners.  Part III deals with the bulk sweeteners which have now been used in foods for over 20 years and are well established both in food products and in the minds of consumers. In addition to the "traditional" polyol bulk sweeteners, newer products such as isomaltulose are discussed. These are seen to offer many of the advantages of polyols (for example regarding dental heath and low glycaemic response) without the laxative side effects if consumed in large quantity. Part IV provides information on the sweeteners which do not fit into the above groups but which nevertheless may offer interesting sweetening opportunities to the product developer. Finally, Part V examines bulking agents and multifunctional ingredients which can be beneficially used in combination with all types of sweeteners and sugars.

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Preface xvii

Contributors xix

PART ONE: NUTRITION AND HEALTH CONSIDERATIONS 1

1 Glycaemic Responses and Toleration 3
Geoffrey Livesey

1.1 Introduction 3

1.2 Glycaemic response in ancient times 4

1.3 Glycaemic response approaching the millennium 5

1.4 The glycaemic response now and in future nutrition 6

1.5 Glycaemic response and adverse outcomes: both physiological and in response to advice 7

1.6 Measurement and expression of the glycaemic response 7

1.7 The acute glycaemic response to sugars and alternatives 13

1.8 Long-term glycaemic control with sweeteners and bulking agents 15

1.9 Are low glycaemic carbohydrates of benefit in healthy persons? 18

1.10 Gastrointestinal tolerance in relation to the glycaemic response 18

1.11 Conclusion 19

2 Dental Health 27
Anne Maguire

2.1 Introduction 27

2.2 Dental caries 27

2.3 Reduced-calorie bulk sweeteners 32

2.4 High-potency (high-intensity) sweeteners 43

2.5 Bulking agents 47

2.6 Summary 49

3 Digestive Health 63
Henna Roytio, Kirsti Tiihonen and Arthur C. Ouwehand

3.1 Introduction; prebiotics, sweeteners and gut health 63

3.2 Intestinal microbiota 63

3.3 Gut health 64

3.4 Prebiotics versus fibre 64

3.5 Endogenous prebiotics 64

3.6 Prebiotics 65

3.7 Current prebiotics 65

3.8 Health benefits 67

3.9 Synbiotics 69

3.10 Safety considerations 70

3.11 Conclusion 71

4 Calorie Control and Weight Management 77
Michele Sadler and Julian D. Stowell

4.1 Introduction 77

4.2 Caloric contribution of sugars in the diet 77

4.3 Calorie control and its importance in weight management 77

4.4 Calorie reduction in foods 78

4.5 Appetite and satiety research 80

4.6 Sweeteners and satiety, energy intakes and body weight 81

4.7 Relevance of energy density and glycaemic response 84

4.8 Legislation relevant to reduced calorie foods 85

4.9 Conclusions 87

PART TWO: HIGH-POTENCY SWEETENERS 91

5 Acesulfame K 93
Christian Klug and Gert-Wolfhard von Rymon Lipinski

5.1 Introduction and history 93

5.2 Organoleptic properties 93

5.3 Physical and chemical properties 98

5.4 Physiological properties 100

5.5 Applications 100

5.6 Safety and analytical methods 110

5.7 Regulatory status 112

6 Aspartame, Neotame and Advantame 117
Kay O'Donnell

6.1 Aspartame 117

6.2 Neotame 127

6.3 Advantame 132

7 Saccharin and Cyclamate 137
Grant E. DuBois

7.1 Introduction 137

7.2 Current understanding of sweetness 137

7.3 Saccharin 139

7.4 Cyclamate 151

8 Sucralose 167
Samuel V. Molinary and Mary E. Quinlan

8.1 Introduction 167

8.2 History of development 167

8.3 Production 168

8.4 Organoleptic properties 168

8.5 Physico-chemical properties 170

8.6 Physiological properties 174
8.7 Applications 175
8.8 Analytical methods 179
8.9 Safety 179
8.10 Regulatory status 181

9 Natural High-Potency Sweeteners 185
Michael G. Lindley

9.1 Introduction 185

9.2 The sweeteners 187

9.3 Conclusions 203

PART THREE: REDUCED-CALORIE BULK SWEETENERS 213

10 Erythritol 215
Peter de Cock

10.1 Introduction 215

10.2 Organoleptic properties 218

10.3 Physical and chemical properties 219

10.4 Physiological properties and health benefits 221

10.5 Applications 228

10.6 Safety and specifications 239

10.7 Regulatory status 239

10.8 Conclusions 240

11 Isomalt 243
Anke Sentko and Ingrid Willibald-Ettle

11.1 Introduction 243

11.2 Organoleptic properties 244

11.3 Physical and chemical properties 245

11.4 Physiological properties 252

11.5 Applications 254

11.6 Safety 270

11.7 Regulatory status: worldwide 271

11.8 Conclusions 271

12 Lactitol 275
Christos Zacharis

12.1 History 275

12.2 Organoleptic properties 275

12.3 Physical and chemical properties 276

12.4 Physiological properties 281

12.5 Health benefits 282

12.6 Applications 287

12.7 Regulatory status 291

12.8 Conclusions 291

13 Maltitol Powder 295
Malcolm W. Kearsley and Ronald C. Deis

13.1 Introduction 295

13.2 Production 296

13.3 Structure 297

13.4 Physical and chemical properties 297

13.5 Physiological properties 299

13.6 Applications in foods 302

13.7 Labelling claims 305

13.8 Legal status 306

13.9 Conclusions 306

14 Maltitol Syrups 309
Michel Flambeau, Frederique Respondek and Anne Wagner

14.1 Introduction 309

14.2 Production 310

14.3 Hydrogenation 311

14.4 Structure 312

14.5 Physico-chemical characteristics 312

14.6 Physiological properties 316

14.7 Applications in foods 323

14.8 Legal status 329

14.9 Safety 329

14.10 Conclusions 329

15 Sorbitol and Mannitol 331
Ronald C. Deis and Malcolm W. Kearsley

15.1 Introduction 331

15.2 Production 331

15.3 Hydrogenation 335

15.4 Storage 335

15.5 Structure 335

15.6 Safety 336

15.7 Physico-chemical characteristics 337

15.8 Physiological properties 339

15.9 Applications in foods 342

15.10 Non-food applications 344

15.11 Legal status 345

15.12 Conclusions 346

16 Xylitol 347
Christos Zacharis

16.1 Description 347

16.2 Organoleptic properties 348

16.3 Physical and chemical properties 350

16.4 Physiological properties 354

16.5 Applications 366

16.6 Safety 369

16.7 Regulatory status 370

PART FOUR: OTHER SWEETENERS 383

17 New Developments in Sweeteners 385
Guy Servant and Gwen Rosenberg

17.1 Sweet taste modulators 385

17.2 Sweet modulator targets 385

17.3 Industry need for reduced-calorie offerings 385

17.4 Sweet taste receptors 386

17.5 Commercially viable sweet taste modulators 390

17.6 Regulatory approval of sweet taste modulators 390

17.7 Commercialisation of sweet taste modulators 391

17.8 Future sweet taste modulators and new sweeteners 392

17.9 Modulators for other taste modalities 392

17.10 Savoury flavour ingredients 393

17.11 Bitter blockers 393

17.12 Cooling flavours 393

17.13 Salt taste modulators 394

17.14 Conclusions 394

18 Isomaltulose 397
Anke Sentko and Ingrid Willibald-Ettle

18.1 Introduction 397

18.2 Organoleptical properties 397

18.3 Physical and chemical properties 398

18.4 Microbiological properties 401

18.5 Physiological properties 402

18.6 Toxicological evaluations 406

18.7 Applications 406

18.8 Regulatory status 413

18.9 Conclusions 413

19 Trehalose 417
Takanobu Higashiyama and Alan B. Richards

19.1 Introduction 417

19.2 Trehalose in nature 418

19.3 Production 419

19.4 Metabolism, safety and tolerance 420

19.5 Regulatory status 421

19.6 Properties 421

19.7 Application in food 423

19.8 Physiological properties 426

19.9 Conclusions 428

PART FIVE: BULKING AGENTS – MULTI-FUNCTIONAL INGREDIENTS 433

20 Bulking Agents – Multi-Functional Ingredients 435
Michael Auerbach and Anne-Karine Dedman

20.1 Introduction 435

20.2 Gluco-polysaccharides 437

0.3 Resistant starches and resistant maltodextrins 449

20.4 Fructo-oligosaccharides 454

References 462

Index 471

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Kay O’Donnell has worked in the food industry for over 20 years, in a variety of senior R&D and commercial roles, for companies including Forum Bioscience, Cadbury, Kraft, GSK and Mars.

Malcolm W. Kearsley was most recently a Principal Scientist with Cadbury at their research centre in Reading, UK. After a career in teaching, research and technical sales in the food industry, he is now retired.

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“This second edition is a successfully revised and updated new version containing also seven new chapters.  The authors have been assisted by an excellent team of co-workers, especially experienced in the field of food sweetness.”  (Advances in Food Sciences, 1 October 2013)

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