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LTE - The UMTS Long Term Evolution: From Theory to Practice, 2nd Edition

ISBN: 978-0-470-66025-6
792 pages
August 2011
LTE - The UMTS Long Term Evolution: From Theory to Practice, 2nd Edition (0470660252) cover image
"Where this book is exceptional is that the reader will not just learn how LTE works but why it works"
Adrian Scrase, ETSI Vice-President, International Partnership Projects

Following on the success of the first edition, this book is fully updated, covering the latest additions to LTE and the key features of LTE-Advanced.

This book builds on the success of its predecessor, offering the same comprehensive system-level understanding  built on explanations of the underlying theory, now expanded to include complete coverage of Release 9 and the developing specifications for LTE-Advanced. The book is a collaborative effort of more than 40 key experts representing over 20 companies actively participating in the development of LTE, as well as academia. The book highlights practical implications, illustrates the expected performance, and draws comparisons with the well-known WCDMA/HSPA standards. The authors not only pay special attention to the physical layer, giving an insight into the fundamental concepts of OFDMA-FDMA and MIMO, but also cover the higher protocol layers and system architecture to enable the reader to gain an overall understanding of the system.

Key New Features:

  • Comprehensively updated with the latest changes of the LTE Release 8 specifications, including improved coverage of Radio Resource Management RF aspects and performance requirements
  • Provides detailed coverage of the new LTE Release 9 features, including: eMBMS, dual-layer beamforming, user equipment positioning, home eNodeBs / femtocells and pico cells and self-optimizing networks
  • Evaluates the LTE system performance
  • Introduces LTE-Advanced, explaining its context and motivation, as well as the key new features including: carrier aggregation, relaying, high-order MIMO, and Cooperative Multi-Point transmission (CoMP).
  • Includes an accompanying website containing a complete list of acronyms related to LTE and LTE-Advanced, with a brief description of each (http://www.wiley.com/go/sesia_theumts)

This book is an invaluable reference for all research and development engineers involved in implementation of LTE or LTE-Advanced, as well as graduate and PhD students in wireless communications. Network operators, service providers and R&D managers will also find this book insightful.

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Editors’ Biographies

List of Contributors

Foreword

Preface

Acknowledgements

List of Acronyms

1 Introduction and Background 1
Thomas Sälzer and Matthew Baker

1.1 The Context for the Long Term Evolution of UMTS  1

1.2 Requirements and Targets for the Long Term Evolution  7

1.3 Technologies for the Long Term Evolution  14

1.4 From Theory to Practice  20

References  21

Part I Network Architecture and Protocols 23

2 Network Architecture 25
Sudeep Palat and Philippe Godin

2.1 Introduction  25

2.2 Overall Architectural Overview  26

2.3 Protocol Architecture  32

2.4 Quality of Service and EPS Bearers  34

2.5 The E-UTRAN Network Interfaces: S1 Interface  40

2.6 The E-UTRAN Network Interfaces: X2 Interface  49

2.7 Summary  55

References 55

3 Control Plane Protocols 57
Himke van der Velde

3.1 Introduction  57

3.2 Radio Resource Control (RRC) 58

3.3 PLMN and Cell Selection 78

3.4 Paging  84

3.5 Summary  86

References  86

4 User Plane Protocols 87
Patrick Fischer, SeungJune Yi, SungDuck Chun and YoungDae Lee

4.1 Introduction to the User Plane Protocol Stack  87

4.2 Packet Data Convergence Protocol (PDCP)  89

4.3 Radio Link Control (RLC)  98

4.4 Medium Access Control (MAC)  108

4.5 Summary of the User Plane Protocols  120

References  120

Part II Physical Layer for Downlink 121

5 Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiple Access (OFDMA) 123
Andrea Ancora, Issam Toufik, Andreas Bury and Dirk Slock

5.1 Introduction  123

5.2 OFDM 125

5.3 OFDMA 137

5.4 Parameter Dimensioning  139

5.5 Summary  142

References  142

6 Introduction to Downlink Physical Layer Design 145
Matthew Baker

6.1 Introduction 145

6.2 Transmission Resource Structure  145

6.3 Signal Structure  148

6.4 Introduction to Downlink Operation  149

References  150

7 Synchronization and Cell Search 151
Fabrizio Tomatis and Stefania Sesia

7.1 Introduction  151

7.2 Synchronization Sequences and Cell Search in LTE  151

7.3 Coherent Versus Non-Coherent Detection 161

References  163

8 Reference Signals and Channel Estimation 165
Andrea Ancora, Stefania Sesia and Alex Gorokhov

8.1 Introduction  165

8.2 Design of Reference Signals in the LTE Downlink  167

8.2.1 Cell-Specific Reference Signals  168

8.3 RS-Aided Channel Modelling and Estimation  174

8.4 Frequency-Domain Channel Estimation  178

8.5 Time-Domain Channel Estimation  181

8.6 Spatial-Domain Channel Estimation  184

8.7 Advanced Techniques  185

References 186

9 Downlink Physical Data and Control Channels 189
Matthew Baker and Tim Moulsley

9.1 Introduction  189

9.2 Downlink Data-Transporting Channels  189

9.3 Downlink Control Channels  196

References  214

10 Link Adaptation and Channel Coding 215
Brian Classon, Ajit Nimbalker, Stefania Sesia and Issam Toufik

10.1 Introduction  215

10.2 Link Adaptation and CQI Feedback  217

10.3 Channel Coding  223

10.4 Conclusions  245

References  246

11 Multiple Antenna Techniques 249
Thomas Sälzer, David Gesbert, Cornelius van Rensburg, Filippo Tosato, Florian Kaltenberger and Tetsushi Abe

11.1 Fundamentals of Multiple Antenna Theory  249

11.2 MIMO Schemes in LTE  262

11.3 Summary 276

References  277

12 Multi-User Scheduling and Interference Coordination 279
Issam Toufik and Raymond Knopp

12.1 Introduction 279

12.2 General Considerations for Resource Allocation Strategies  280

12.3 Scheduling Algorithms 283

12.4 Considerations for Resource Scheduling in LTE  286

12.5 Interference Coordination and Frequency Reuse  287

12.6 Summary  291

References  292

13 Broadcast Operation 293
Himke van der Velde, Olivier Hus and Matthew Baker

13.1 Introduction  293

13.2 Broadcast Modes  293

13.3 Overall MBMS Architecture  295

13.4 MBMS Single Frequency Network Transmission  297

13.5 MBMS Characteristics  303

13.6 Radio Access Protocol Architecture and Signalling 304

13.7 Public Warning Systems  312

13.8 Comparison of Mobile Broadcast Modes  312

References  314

Part III Physical Layer for Uplink 315

14 Uplink Physical Layer Design 317
Robert Love and Vijay Nangia

14.1 Introduction  317

14.2 SC-FDMA Principles  318

14.3 SC-FDMA Design in LTE  321

14.4 Summary  325

References  326

15 Uplink Reference Signals 327
Robert Love and Vijay Nangia

15.1 Introduction  327

15.2 RS Signal Sequence Generation  328

15.3 Sequence-Group Hopping and Planning  332

15.4 Cyclic Shift Hopping  333

15.5 Demodulation Reference Signals (DM-RS) 335

15.6 Uplink Sounding Reference Signals (SRS)  337

15.7 Summary  340

References  341

16 Uplink Physical Channel Structure 343
Robert Love and Vijay Nangia

16.1 Introduction  343

16.2 Physical Uplink Shared Data Channel Structure  344

16.3 Uplink Control Channel Design  348

16.4 Multiplexing of Control Signalling and UL-SCH Data on PUSCH  365

16.5 ACK/NACK Repetition  367

16.6 Multiple-Antenna Techniques  367

16.7 Summary  369

References  369

17 Random Access 371
Pierre Bertrand and Jing Jiang

17.1 Introduction  371

17.2 Random Access Usage and Requirements in LTE  371

17.3 Random Access Procedure  372

7.4 Physical Random Access Channel Design  376

17.5 PRACH Implementation  396

17.6 Time Division Duplex (TDD) PRACH  404

17.7 Concluding Remarks  405

References  406

18 Uplink Transmission Procedures 407
Matthew Baker

18.1 Introduction  407

18.2 Uplink Timing Control  407

18.3 Power Control  411

References  420

Part IV Practical Deployment Aspects 421

19 User Equipment Positioning 423
Karri Ranta-aho and Zukang Shen

19.1 Introduction  423

19.2 Assisted Global Navigation Satellite System (A-GNSS) Positioning  425

19.3 Observed Time Difference Of Arrival (OTDOA) Positioning  426

19.4 Cell-ID-based Positioning  431

19.5 LTE Positioning Protocols  433

19.6 Summary and Future Techniques  435

References  436

20 The Radio Propagation Environment 437
Juha Ylitalo and Tommi Jämsä

20.1 Introduction  437

20.2 SISO and SIMO Channel Models  438

20.3 MIMO Channel Models  441

20.4 Radio Channel Implementation for Conformance Testing  454

20.5 Concluding Remarks 455

References  455

21 Radio Frequency Aspects 457
Moray Rumney, Takaharu Nakamura, Stefania Sesia, Tony Sayers and Adrian Payne

21.1 Introduction  457

21.2 Frequency Bands and Arrangements  459

21.3 Transmitter RF Requirements  462

21.4 Receiver RF Requirements  474

21.5 RF Impairments  492

21.6 Summary  500

References  501

22 Radio Resource Management 503
Muhammad Kazmi

22.1 Introduction  503

22.2 Cell Search Performance  505

22.3 Mobility Measurements 513

22.4 UE Measurement Reporting Mechanisms and Requirements  516

22.5 Mobility Performance 518

22.6 RRC Connection Mobility Control Performance 525

22.7 Radio Link Monitoring Performance 526

22.8 Concluding Remarks 528

References  529

23 Paired and Unpaired Spectrum 531
Nicholas Anderson

23.1 Introduction  531

23.2 Duplex Modes  532

23.3 Interference Issues in Unpaired Spectrum  533

23.4 Half-Duplex System Design Aspects  544

23.5 Reciprocity  552

24 Picocells, Femtocells and Home eNodeBs 563
Philippe Godin and Nick Whinnett

24.1 Introduction  563

24.2 Home eNodeB Architecture  564

24.3 Interference Management for Femtocell Deployment  569

24.4 RF Requirements for Small Cells  574

24.5 Summary  580

References  580

25 Self-Optimizing Networks 581
Philippe Godin

25.1 Introduction 581

25.2 Automatic Neighbour Relation Function (ANRF)  582

25.3 Self-Configuration of eNodeB and MME  584

25.4 Automatic Configuration of Physical Cell Identity  587

25.5 Mobility Load Balancing Optimization 587

25.6 Mobility Robustness Optimization  591

25.7 Random Access CHannel (RACH) Self-Optimization  595

25.8 Energy Saving  596

25.9 Emerging New SON Use Cases 597

References  598

26 LTE System Performance 599
Tetsushi Abe

26.1 Introduction 599

26.2 Factors Contributing to LTE System Capacity  599

26.3 LTE Capacity Evaluation  603

26.4 LTE Coverage and Link Budget  608

26.5 Summary  610

References  611

Part V LTE-Advanced 613

27 Introduction to LTE-Advanced 615
Dirk Gerstenberger

27.1 Introduction and Requirements  615

27.2 Overview of the Main Features of LTE-Advanced  618

27.3 Backward Compatibility  619

27.4 Deployment Aspects  620

27.5 UE Categories for LTE-Advanced  621

References  622

28 Carrier Aggregation 623
Juan Montojo and Jelena Damnjanovic

28.1 Introduction  623

28.2 Protocols for Carrier Aggregation  624

28.3 Physical Layer Aspects  631

28.4 UE Transmitter and Receiver Aspects  648

28.5 Summary 650

References  650

29 Multiple Antenna Techniques for LTE-Advanced 651
Alex Gorokhov, Amir Farajidana, Kapil Bhattad, Xiliang Luo and Stefan Geirhofer

29.1 Downlink Reference Signals  651

29.2 Uplink Reference Signals  657

29.3 Downlink MIMO Enhancements  659

29.4 Uplink Multiple Antenna Transmission  666

29.5 Coordinated MultiPoint (CoMP) Transmission and Reception  669

29.6 Summary  671

References 671

30 Relaying 673
Eric Hardouin, J. Nicholas Laneman, Alexander Golitschek, Hidetoshi Suzuki, Osvaldo Gonsa

30.1 Introduction  673

30.2 Theoretical Analysis of Relaying  679

30.3 Relay Nodes in LTE-Advanced  684

30.4 Summary  699

References  699

31 Additional Features of LTE Release 10 701
Teck Hu, Philippe Godin and Sudeep Palat

31.1 Introduction  701

31.2 Enhanced Inter-Cell Interference Coordination 701

31.3 Minimization of Drive Tests 710

31.4 Machine-Type Communications 712

References 714

32 LTE-Advanced Performance and Future Developments 715
Takehiro Nakamura and Tetsushi Abe

32.1 LTE-Advanced System Performance  715

32.2 Future Developments  718

References  720

Index 721

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LTE - The UMTS Long Term EvolutionVisit the companion website to access an extensive acronym dictionary to explain all the latest LTE and LTE-advanced terms.
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