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MPLS-Enabled Applications: Emerging Developments and New Technologies, 3rd Edition

ISBN: 978-0-470-66545-9
628 pages
January 2011
MPLS-Enabled Applications: Emerging Developments and New Technologies, 3rd Edition (0470665459) cover image
With a foreword by Yakov Rekhter

"Here at last is a single, all encompassing resource where the myriad applications sharpen into a comprehensible text that first explains the whys and whats of each application before going on to the technical detail of the hows."
Kireeti Kompella, CTO Junos, Juniper Networks

The authoritative guide to MPLS, now in its Third edition, fully updated with brand new material!

MPLS is now considered the networking technology for carrying all types of network traffic, including voice telephony, real-time video, and data traffic. In MPLS-Enabled Applications, Third Edition, the authors methodically show how MPLS holds the key to network convergence by allowing operators to offer more services over a single physical infrastructure. The Third Edition contains more than 170 illustrations, new chapters, and more coverage, guiding the reader from the basics of the technology, though all its major VPN applications.

MPLS Enabled-Applications contains up-to-date coverage of:

  • The current status and future potential of all major MPLS applications, including L2VPN, L3VPN, pseudowires and VPLS.
  • A new chapter with up to date coverage of the MPLS transport profile, MPLS-TP.
  • MPLS in access networks and Seamless MPLS, the new architecture for extending MPLS into the access, discussed in depth for both the unicast and the multicast case.
  • Extensive coverage of multicast support in L3VPNs (mVPNs), explaining and comparing both the PIM/GRE and the next generation BGP/MPLS solutions, and including a new chapter on advanced topics in next generation multicast VPNs.
  • A new chapter on advanced protection techniques, including detailed discussion of 50 ms end-to-end service restoration.
  • Comprehensive coverage of the base technology, as well as the latest IETF drafts, including topics such as pseudowire redundancy, VPLS multihoming, IRB and P2MP pseudowires.

MPLS-Enabled Applications will provide those involved in the design and deployment of MPLS systems, as well as those researching the area of MPLS networks, with a thoroughly modern view of how MPLS is transforming the networking world.

"Essential new material for those trying to understand the next steps in MPLS."
—Adrian Farrel, IETF Routing Area Director

"MPLS-Enabled Applications takes a unique and creative approach in explaining MPLS concepts and how they are applied in practice to meet the needs of Enterprise and Service Provider networks. I consistently recommend this book to colleagues in the engineering, education and business community."
—Dave Cooper, Chief IP Technologist, Global Crossing Ltd

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About the Authors.

Foreword.

Preface.

Acknowledgements.

Part One.

1 Foundations.

1.1 Historical perspective.

1.2 Current trends.

1.3 MPLS mechanisms.

1.4 Conclusion.

1.5 References.

1.6 Further reading.

1.7 Study questions.

2 Traffic Engineering with MPLS (MPLS-TE).

2.1 Introduction.

2.2 The business drivers.

2.3 Application scenarios.

2.4 Setting up traffic-engineered paths using MPLS-TE.

2.5 Using the traffic-engineered paths.

2.6 Deployment considerations.

2.7 Using traffic engineering to achieve resource optimization.

2.8 Offline path computation.

2.9 Conclusion.

2.10 References.

2.11 Further reading.

2.12 Study questions.

3 Protection and Restoration in MPLS Networks.

3.1 Introduction.

3.2 The business drivers.

3.3 Failure detection.

3.4 End-to-end protection.

3.5 Local protection using fast reroute.

3.6 Link protection.

3.7 Node protection.

3.8 Additional constraints for the computation of the protection path.

3.9 Interaction of end-to-end protection and fast reroute.

3.10 Deployment considerations for local protection mechanisms.

3.11 IP and LDP FRR.

3.12 Conclusion.

3.13 References.

3.14 Further reading.

3.15 Study questions.

4 MPLS DiffServ-TE.

4.1 Introduction.

4.2 The business drivers.

4.3 Application scenarios.

4.4 The DiffServ-TE solution.

4.5 Extending the DiffServ-TE solution with multiclass LSPs.

4.6 Conclusion.

4.7 References.

4.8 Further reading.

4.9 Study questions.

5 Interdomain Traffic Engineering.

5.1 Introduction.

5.2 The business drivers.

5.3 Setting up interdomain TE LSPs.

5.4 Interprovider challenges.

5.5 Comparison of the LSP setup methods.

5.6 Conclusion.

5.7 References.

5.8 Further reading.

5.9 Study questions.

6 MPLS Multicast.

6.1 Introduction.

6.2 The business drivers.

6.3 P2MP LSP mechanisms.

6.4 LAN procedures for P2MP LSPs.

6.5 Coupling traffic into a P2MP LSP.

6.6 MPLS fast reroute.

6.7 Ingress redundancy for P2MP LSPs.

6.8 P2MP LSP hierarchy.

6.9 Applications of point-to-multipoint LSPs.

6.10 Conclusion.

6.11 References.

6.12 Study questions.

Part Two.

7 Foundations of Layer 3 BGP/MPLS Virtual Private Networks.

7.1 Introduction.

7.2 The business drivers.

7.3 The overlay VPN model.

7.4 The peer VPN model.

7.5 Building the BGP/MPLS VPN solution.

7.6 Benefits of the BGP/MPLS VPN solution.

7.7 References.

7.8 Further reading.

7.9 Study questions.

8 Advanced Topics in Layer 3 BGP/MPLS Virtual.

Private Networks.

8.1 Introduction.

8.2 Routing between CE and PE.

8.3 Differentiated VPN treatment in the core.

8.4 Route reflectors and VPNs.

8.5 Scalability discussion.

8.6 Convergence times in a VPN network.

8.7 Security issues.

8.8 QoS in a VPN scenario.

8.9 IPv6 VPNs.

8.10 Conclusion.

8.11 References.

8.12 Further reading.

8.13 Study questions.

9 Hierarchical and Inter-AS VPNs.

9.1 Introduction.

9.2 Carriers’ carrier – service providers as VPN customers.

9.3 Multi-AS backbones.

9.4 Interprovider QoS.

9.5 Conclusion.

9.6 References.

9.7 Further reading.

9.8 Study questions.

10 Multicast in a Layer 3 VPN.

10.1 Introduction.

10.2 The business drivers.

10.3 mVPN – problem decomposition.

10.4 The original multicast solution – PIM/GRE mVPN (draft-rosen).

10.5 NG multicast for L3VPN – BGP/MPLS mVPN(NG mVPN).

10.6 Comparison of PIM/GRE and BGP/MPLS mVPNs.

10.7 Conclusion.

10.8 References.

10.9 Further reading.

10.10 Study questions.

11 Advanced Topics in BGP/MPLS mVPNs.

11.1 Introduction.

11.2 BGP/MPLS mVPN – inter-AS operations.

11.3 Support of PIM DM in BGP/MPLS mVPN.

11.4 Discovering the RP – auto-RP and BSR support in BGP/MPLS mVPN.

11.5 Implementing extranets in BGP/MPLS mVPN.

11.6 Transition from draft-rosen to BGP/MPLS mVPNs.

11.7 Scalability discussion.

11.8 Achieving multicast high availability with BGP/MPLS mVPN.

11.9 Internet multicast service using the BGP/MPLS mVPN technology.

11.10 Conclusion.

11.11 References.

11.12 Study questions.

12 Layer 2 Transport over MPLS.

12.1 Introduction.

12.2 The business drivers.

12.3 Comparison of Layer 2 VPNs and Layer 3 VPNs.

12.4 Principles of Layer 2 transport over MPLS.

12.5 Forwarding plane.

12.6 Control plane operation.

12.7 Admission control of Layer 2 connections into network.

12.8 Failure notification mechanisms.

12.9 Multi-homing.

12.10 Layer 2 interworking.

12.11 Circuit cross connect (CCC).

12.12 Point-to-multipoint Layer 2 transport.

12.13 Other applications of Layer 2 transport.

12.14 Conclusion.

12.15 References.

12.16 Study questions.

13 Virtual Private LAN Service.

13.1 Introduction.

13.2 The business drivers.

13.3 VPLS mechanism overview.

13.4 Forwarding plane mechanisms.

13.5 Control plane mechanisms.

13.6 LDP and BGP interworking for VPLS.

13.7 Interprovider Option E for VPLS.

13.8 Operational considerations for VPLS.

13.8 Conclusion.

13.9 References

13.10 Study questions. Part Three.

14 Advanced protection and restoration: protecting the service.

14.1 Introduction.

14.2 The business drivers.

14.3 Failure scenarios.

14.4 Existing solutions.

14.5 Protecting the egress - local protection solution.

14.6 Conclusion.

14.7 References.

14.8 Study questions.

15 MPLS Management.

15.1 Introduction.

15.2 Management – why and what.

15.3 Detecting and troubleshooting failures.

15.4 Configuration errors.

15.5 Visibility.

15.6 Conclusion.

15.7 References.

15.8 Further reading.

15.9 Study questions.

16 MPLS in Access Networks and Seamless MPLS.

16.1 Introduction.

16.2 The business drivers.

16.3 Models for MPLS deployment in access networks.

16.4 Seamless MPLS Mechanisms.

16.5 Conclusions.

16.6 References.

16.7 Study questions.

17 MPLS Transport Profile (MPLS-TP).

17.1 Introduction.

17.2 The business drivers.

17.3 Requirements for a transport profile for MPLS.

17.4 MPLS-TP functionality.

17.5 Deployment considerations.

17.6 Misconceptions about MPLS-TP.

17.7 Conclusion.

17.8 References.

17.9 Study quetions.

18 Conclusions.

18.1 Introduction.

18.2 Network convergence.

18.3 Interaction with client edge equipment.

18.4 Interprovider capability.

18.5 MPLS in the data communications network (DCN).

18.6 MPLS in mobile networks

18.7 MPLS in the enterprise.

18.8 Final remarks.

18.9 References.

Appendix A – Selected backhaul scenarios in MPLS-based access networks

Appendix B – MPLS resources.

Appendix C – Solutions to Selected Study Questions.

Appendix D: Acronyms.

Index.

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Ina Minei is a network protocols engineer at Juniper Networks whose focus is MPLS protocols and applications, DiffServ-aware traffic engineering and network convergence. She has helped to implement these and other features into the JUNOS operating system. She is active in industry forums, has presented MPLS tutorials at the North American Network Operators' Group conference and is a regular contributor to the IETF. She is the author of Juniper Networks' whitepaper on Diffserv-aware traffic engineering. Prior to joining Juniper Networks, she worked for Cisco Systems on the development of a next generation router operating system.

Julian Lucek has worked with the Photonics Research Department at British Telecom where he co-built the world's first all-optical regenerator before moving into the IP field to evaluate new routing platforms. His current post is that of Consulting Engineer for Juniper Networks working with major Service Providers on MPLS deployments. He is the author of many published papers in the field of communications technology and holds several patents in that area.

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