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Inkjet Technology for Digital Fabrication

ISBN: 978-0-470-68198-5
390 pages
December 2012
Inkjet Technology for Digital Fabrication (0470681985) cover image

Whilst inkjet technology is well-established on home and small office desktops and is now having increasing impact in commercial printing, it can also be used to deposit materials other than ink as individual droplets at a microscopic scale. This allows metals, ceramics, polymers and biological materials (including living cells) to be patterned on to substrates under precise digital control. This approach offers huge potential advantages for manufacturing, since inkjet methods can be used to generate structures and functions which cannot be attained in other ways.

Beginning with an overview of the fundamentals, this bookcovers the key components, for example piezoelectric print-heads and fluids for inkjet printing, and the processes involved. It goes on to describe specific applications, e.g. MEMS, printed circuits, active and passive electronics, biopolymers and living cells, and additive manufacturing. Detailed case studies are included on flat-panel OLED displays, RFID (radio-frequency identification) manufacturing and tissue engineering, while a comprehensive examination of the current technologies and future directions of inkjet technology completes the coverage. 

With contributions from both academic researchers and leading names in the industry, Inkjet Technology for Digital Fabrication is a comprehensive resource for technical development engineers, researchers and students in inkjet technology and system development, and will also appeal to researchers in chemistry, physics, engineering, materials science and electronics.

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About the Editors xiii

List of Contributors xv

Preface xvii

1. Introduction to Inkjet Printing for Manufacturing 1
Ian M. Hutchings and Graham D. Martin

1.1 Introduction 1

1.2 Materials and Their Deposition by Inkjet Printing 3

1.3 Applications to Manufacturing 8

1.4 Potential and Limitations 15

References 17

2. Fundamentals of Inkjet Technology 21
Graham D. Martin and Ian M. Hutchings

2.1 Introduction 21

2.2 Surface Tension and Viscosity 23

2.3 Dimensionless Groups in Inkjet Printing 25

2.4 Methods of Drop Generation 27

2.5 Resolution and Print Quality 34

2.6 Grey-Scale Printing 35

2.7 Reliability 36

2.8 Satellite Drops 38

2.9 Print-Head and Substrate Motion 39

2.10 Inkjet Complexity 42

References 42

3. Dynamics of Piezoelectric Print-Heads 45
J. Frits Dijksman and Anke Pierik

3.1 Introduction 45

3.2 Basic Designs of Piezo-Driven Print-Heads 47

3.3 Basic Dynamics of a Piezo-Driven Inkjet Print-Head (Single-Degree-of-Freedom Analysis) 49

3.4 Design Considerations for Droplet Emission from Piezo-Driven Print-Heads 60

3.5 Multi-Cavity Helmholtz Resonator Theory 71

3.6 Long Duct Theory 77

3.7 Concluding Remarks 83

References 84

4. Fluids for Inkjet Printing 87
Stephen G. Yeates, Desheng Xu, Marie-Beatrice Madec, Dolores Caras-Quintero, Khalid A. Alamry, Andromachi Malandraki and Veronica Sanchez-Romaguera

4.1 Introduction 87

4.2 Print-Head Considerations 88

4.3 Physical Considerations in DOD Droplet Formation 89

4.4 Ink Design Considerations 95

4.5 Ink Classification 95

4.6 Applications in Electronic Devices 105

References 108

5. When the Drop Hits the Substrate 113
Jonathan Stringer and Brian Derby

5.1 Introduction 113

5.2 Stable Droplet Deposition 114

5.3 Unstable Droplet Deposition 120

5.4 Capillarity-Driven Spreading 122

5.5 Coalescence 126

5.6 Phase Change 131

5.7 Summary 134

References 135

6. Manufacturing of Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS) 141
David B. Wallace

6.1 Introduction 141

6.2 Limitations and Opportunities in MEMS Fabrication 142

6.3 Benefits of Inkjet in MEMS Fabrication 143

6.4 Chemical Sensors 144

6.5 Optical MEMS Devices 147

6.6 Bio-MEMS Devices 151

6.7 Assembly and Packaging 152

6.8 Conclusions 156

Acknowledgements 156

References 156

7. Conductive Tracks and Passive Electronics 159
Jake Reder

7.1 Introduction 159

7.2 Vision 159

7.3 Drivers 160

7.4 Incumbent Technologies 162

7.5 Conductive Tracks and Contacts 162

7.6 Raw Materials: Ink 164

7.7 Raw Materials: Conductive Polymers 172

7.8 Raw Materials: Substrates 172

7.9 Printing Processes 174

7.10 Post Deposition Processing 174

7.11 Resistors 175

7.12 Capacitors 176

7.13 Other Passive Electronic Devices 176

7.14 Outlook 178

References 178

8. Printed Circuit Board Fabrication 183
Neil Chilton

8.1 Introduction 183

8.2 What Is a PCB? 183

8.3 How Is a PCB Manufactured Conventionally? 185

8.4 Imaging 185

8.5 PCB Design Formats 188

8.6 Inkjet Applications in PCB Manufacturing 189

8.7 Future Possibilities 202

References 205

9. Active Electronics 207
Madhusudan Singh, Hanna M. Haverinen, Yuka Yoshioka and Ghassan E. Jabbour

9.1 Introduction 207

9.2 Applications of Inkjet Printing to Active Devices 211

9.3 Future Outlook 224

References 225

10. Flat Panel Organic Light-Emitting Diode (OLED) Displays: A Case
Study 237

Julian Carter, Mark Crankshaw and Sungjune Jung

10.1 Introduction 237

10.2 Development of Inkjet Printing for OLED Displays 238

10.3 Inkjet Requirements for OLED Applications 241

10.4 Ink Formulation and Process Control 243

10.5 Print Defects and Control 246

10.6 Conclusions and Outlook 249

Acknowledgements 250

References 250

11. Radiofrequency Identification (RFID) Manufacturing: A Case Study 255
Vivek Subramanian

11.1 Introduction 255

11.2 Conventional RFID Technology 256

11.3 Applications of Printing to RFID 260

11.4 Printed Antenna Structures for RFID 260

11.5 Printed RFID Tags 263

11.6 Conclusions 273

References 273

12. Biopolymers and Cells 275
Paul Calvert and Thomas Boland

12.1 Introduction 275

12.2 Printers for Biopolymers and Cells 277

12.3 Ink Formulation 282

12.4 Printing Cells 289

12.5 Reactive Inks 292

12.6 Substrates for Printing 296

12.7 Applications 297

12.8 Conclusions 299

References 299

13. Tissue Engineering: A Case Study 307
Makoto Nakamura

13.1 Introduction 307

13.2 A Feasibility Study of Live Cell Printing by Inkjet 310

13.3 3D Biofabrication by Gelation of Inkjet Droplets 313

13.4 2D and 3D Biofabrication by a 3D Bioprinter 314

13.5 Use of Inkjet Technology for 3D Tissue Manufacturing 319

13.6 Summary and Future Prospects 322

Acknowledgements 323

References 323

14. Three-Dimensional Digital Fabrication 325
Bill O’Neill

14.1 Introduction 325

14.2 Background to Digital Fabrication 326

14.3 Digital Fabrication and Jetted Material Delivery 329

14.4 Liquid-Based Fabrication Techniques 330

14.5 Powder-Based Fabrication Techniques 335

14.6 Research Challenges 338

14.7 Future Trends 340

References 341

15. Current Inkjet Technology and Future Directions 343
Mike Willis

15.1 The Inkjet Print-Head as a Delivery Device 343

15.2 Limitations of Inkjet Technology 344

15.3 Today’s Dominant Technologies and Limitations 348

15.4 Other Current Technologies 351

15.5 Emerging Technologies 353

15.6 Future Trends for Print-Head Manufacturing 357

15.7 Future Requirements and Directions 358

15.8 Summary of Status of Inkjet Technology for Digital Fabrication 361

References 362

Index 363

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