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Forensic Analytical Techniques

ISBN: 978-0-470-68728-4
234 pages
February 2013
Forensic Analytical Techniques (0470687282) cover image
The book will be an open learning / distance learning text in the Analytical Techniques for the Sciences (AnTS) covering analytical techniques used in forensic science. No prior knowledge of the analytical techniques will be required by the reader.

An introductory chapter will provide an overview of the science of the materials used as forensic evidence. Each of the following chapters will describe the techniques used in forensic analysis. The theory, instrumentation and sampling techniques will be explained and examples of the application of each technique to particular forensic samples will be provided. The reader will be able to assess their understanding with the use of regular self assessment questions and discussion questions throughout the book. The user of the book will be able to apply their understanding to the application of specific techniques to particular analyses encountered in their professional life.

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Series Preface xiii

Preface xv

About the Author xvii

Acronyms, Abbreviations and Symbols xix

1 The Chemistry of Forensic Evidence 1

1.1 Introduction 1

1.2 Evidence Types 2

1.3 Introduction to Data Analysis 23

1.4 Summary 24

References 24

2 Preliminary Tests 27

2.1 Introduction 27

2.2 Chemical Tests 27

2.3 Density 32

2.4 Light Examination 35

2.5 Summary 39

References 39

3 Microscopic Techniques 41

3.1 Introduction 41

3.2 Optical Microscopy 42

3.3 Transmission Electron Microscopy 51

3.4 Scanning Electron Microscopy 54

3.5 Atomic Force Microscopy 59

3.6 X-Ray Diffraction 60

3.7 Summary 66

References 66

4 Molecular Spectroscopy 69

4.1 Introduction 70

4.2 Infrared Spectroscopy 70

4.3 Raman Spectroscopy 89

4.4 Ultraviolet–visible Spectroscopy 95

4.5 Fluorescence Spectroscopy 101

4.6 Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy 104

4.7 Summary 109

References 109

5 Elemental Analysis 113

5.1 Introduction 113

5.2 Atomic Spectrometry 114

5.3 Inductively Coupled Plasma–Mass Spectrometry 117

5.4 X-Ray Fluorescence Spectroscopy 119

5.5 Particle-Induced X-Ray Emission Spectroscopy 123

5.6 Neutron Activation Analysis 125

5.7 Summary 125

References 126

6 Mass Spectrometry 129

6.1 Introduction 129

6.2 Molecular Mass Spectrometry 129

6.3 Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometry 134

6.4 Ion Mobility Spectrometry 137

6.5 Summary 140

References 140

7 Separation Techniques 143

7.1 Introduction 144

7.2 Paper Chromatography 144

7.3 Thin Layer Chromatography 145

7.4 Gas Chromatography 149

7.5 Liquid Chromatography 155

7.6 Ion Chromatography 159

7.7 Capillary Electrophoresis 161

7.8 Summary 163

References 164

8 Thermal Analysis 167

8.1 Introduction 167

8.2 Pyrolysis Techniques 168

8.3 Differential Scanning Calorimetry and Differential Thermal Analysis 171

8.4 Thermogravimetric Analysis 174

8.5 Summary 178

References 178

Bibliography 195

Glossary of Terms 197

SI Units and Physical Constants 203

Periodic Table 207

Index 209

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“I would recommend this work to chemistry students with an interest in the chemical analysis of forensic evidence.”  (Chemistry & Industry, 1 July 2013)

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