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Optically Stimulated Luminescence: Fundamentals and Applications

ISBN: 978-0-470-69725-2
378 pages
February 2011
Optically Stimulated Luminescence: Fundamentals and Applications (0470697253) cover image


Optically stimulated luminescence has developed into one of the leading optical techniques for the measurement and detection of ionizing radiation. This text covers, in a readable manner, advanced modern applications of the technique, how it can play a useful role in different areas of dosimetry and how to approach the challenges presented when working with optically stimulated luminescence.

The six chapters are as follows:

  • Introduction, including a short history of OSL and details of successful applications
  • Theory and Practical Aspects
  • Personal Dosimetry
  • Space Dosimetry
  • Medical Dosimetry
  • Other Applications and Concepts, including retrospective and accident dosimetry, environmental monitoring and UV dosimetry

Throughout the book, the underlying theory is discussed on an as-needed basis for a complete understanding of the phenomena, but with an emphasis of the practical applications of the technique. The authors also give background information and relevant key references on each method, inviting the reader to explore deeper into the subject independently.

Postgraduates, researchers, and those involved with radiation dosimetry will find this book particularly useful. The material is both relevant and accessible for both specialists and those new to the field, therefore is fundamental to any academic interested in modern advances of the subject.

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Table of Contents




List of Acronyms.

1 Introduction.

1.1 A Short History of Optically Stimulated Luminescence.

1.2 Brief Description of Successful Applications.

1.2.1 Personal.

1.2.2 Space.

1.2.3 Medical.

1.2.4 Security.

1.3 The Future.

2 Theory and Practical Aspects.

2.1 Introduction.

2.2 Basic Aspects of the OSL Phenomenon.

2.2.1 Energy Levels in Perfect Crystals.

2.2.2 Defects in the Crystal.

2.2.3 Excitation of the Crystal by Ionizing Radiation.

2.2.4 Trapping and Recombination at Defect Levels.

2.2.5 Thermal Stimulation of Trapped Charges.

2.2.6 Optical Stimulation of Trapped Charges.

2.2.7 The Luminescence Process.

2.2.8 Rate Equations for OSL and TL Processes.

2.2.9 Temperature Dependence of the OSL Signal.

2.2.10 Other OSL Models.

2.3 OSL Readout.

2.3.1 Basic Elements of an OSL Reader.

2.3.2 Stimulation Modalities.

2.4 Instrumentation.

2.4.1 Light Sources.

2.4.2 Light Detectors.

2.4.3 Optical Filters.

2.4.4 Light Collection.

2.4.5 Sample Heaters.

2.5 Available OSL Readers.

2.5.1 Experimental Arrangements.

2.5.2 Automated Research Readers.

2.5.3 Commercial Dosimetry Readers.

2.5.4 Optical Fiber Systems.

2.5.5 Imaging Systems.

2.5.6 Portable OSL Readers.

2.6 Complementary Techniques.

2.6.1 OSL Emission and Stimulation Spectrum.

2.6.2 Lifetime and Time-Resolved OSL Measurements.

2.6.3 Correlations Between OSL and TL.

2.6.4 Other Phenomena.

2.7 Overview of OSL Materials.

2.7.1 Artificial Materials.

2.7.2 Natural Materials.

2.7.3 Electronic Components.

2.7.4 Other OSL Materials and Material Needs.

3 Personal Dosimetry.

3.1 Introduction.

3.2 Quantities of Interest.

3.2.1 Absorbed Dose and Other Physical Quantities.

3.2.2 Protection Quantities.

3.2.3 Operational Quantities.

3.3 Dosimetry Considerations.

3.3.1 Definitions.

3.3.2 Dose Calculation Algorithm.

3.3.3 Reference Calibration Fields for Personal and Area Dosimeters.

3.3.4 Uncertainty Analysis and Expression of Uncertainty.

3.4 Detectors.

3.4.1 General Characteristics.

3.4.2 Al2O3:C Detectors.

3.4.3 BeO Detectors.

3.5 Dosimetry Systems.

3.5.1 Luxel+ Dosimetry System.

3.5.2 InLight Dosimetry System.

3.6 Neutron-Sensitive OSL Detectors.

3.6.1 Development of Neutron-Sensitive OSL Detectors.

3.6.2 Properties of OSLN Detectors.

3.6.3 Ionization Density Effects.

4 Space Dosimetry.

4.1 Introduction.

4.2 Space Radiation Environment.

4.2.1 Galactic Cosmic Rays (GCR).

4.2.2 Earth’s Radiation Belts (ERB).

4.2.3 Solar Particle Events (SPEs).

4.2.4 Secondary Radiation.

4.3 Quantities of Interest.

4.3.1 Absorbed Dose, D.

4.3.2 Dose Equivalent, H.

4.3.3 Equivalent Dose, HT.

4.3.4 Effective Dose, E.

4.3.5 Gray-Equivalent, GT.

4.4 Health Risk..

4.5 Evaluation of Dose in Space Radiation Fields Using OSLDs (and TLDs).

4.5.1 The Calibration Problem for Space Radiation Fields.

4.5.2 Thermoluminescence, TL.

4.5.3 Optically Stimulated Luminescence, OSL.

4.5.4 OSL Response in Mixed Fields.

4.6 Applications.

4.6.1 Use of OSLDs (and TLDs) in Space-Radiation Fields.

4.6.2 Example Applications.

4.7 Future Directions.

5 Medical Dosimetry.

5.1 Introduction.

5.2 Radiation Fields in Medical Dosimetry.

5.2.1 Diagnostic Radiology.

5.2.2 Radiation Therapy and Radiosurgery.

5.2.3 Proton and Heavy-Ion Therapy.

5.3 Practical OSL Aspects Applied to Medical Dosimetry.

5.3.1 A Proposed Formalism.

5.3.2 Calibration and Readout Protocols.

5.3.3 A Checklist for Reporting OSL Results.

5.4 Optical-Fiber OSL Systems for Real-time Dosimetry.

5.4.1 Basic Concept.

5.4.2 Optical-Fiber OSL System Designs and Materials.

5.4.3 Readout Approaches.

5.5 Properties of Al2O3:C OSL Detectors for Medical Applications.

5.5.1 Influence Factors and Correction Factors.

5.5.2 Correction Factors for Beam Quality.

5.6 Clinical Applications.

5.6.1 Quality Assurance in External Beam Radiation Therapy.

5.6.2 Brachytherapy.

5.6.3 Measurement of Dose Profiles in X-ray Computed Tomography (CT).

5.6.4 Proton Therapy.

5.6.5 Fluoroscopy (Patient and Staff Dosimetry).

5.6.6 Mammography.

5.6.7 Out-of-field Dose Assessment in Radiotherapy.

5.6.8 Dose Mapping.

5.6.9 Final Remarks on Clinical Applications.

6 Other Applications and Concepts.

6.1 Introduction.

6.2 Retrospective and Accident Dosimetry.

6.2.1 Basic Considerations.

6.2.2 Methodological Aspects.

6.2.3 Building Materials.

6.2.4 Household Materials.

6.2.5 Electronic Components.

6.2.6 Dental Enamel and Dental Ceramics.

6.3 Environmental Monitoring.

6.4 UV Dosimetry.

6.5 Integrated Sensors.

6.6 Passive/Active Devices.

6.7 Other Potential Security Applications.



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Author Information

Stephen W. S. McKeever is Vice President for Research and Technology Transfer at Oklahoma State University (USA). He is also a Regents Professor in the department of physics.  He was named a Noble Research Fellow in Optical Materials in 1987. Professor McKeever was also named the MOST (More Oklahoma Science and Technology) Chair of Experimental Physics in 1999. He is widely known for his research in optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) and thermoluminescence (TL) with specific applications to radiation dosimetry. Major accomplishments in recent years include leading a research team that the developed optically stimulated luminescence as a means of personal radiation dosimetry. The patented technology was used commercially to develop a radiation dosimeter system currently used worldwide. His special interests are space radiation dosimetry to monitor radiation doses to astronauts on long-duration space flights, such as a manned mission to Mars. He has authored or co-authored over 180 scientific publications and five books.

Eduardo G. Yukihara is an Assistant Professor at Oklahoma State University. He has been involved with research on OSL since 2000, and his research group currently focuses on the development of the OSL technique in various fields such as space dosimetry, medical dosimetry, accident dosimetry, neutron dosimetry, as well as investigations in basic properties of OSL materials. He has presented material relating to this book to students in short courses, colloquia, a conference summer school, and invited conference presentations. In addition, he has been invited to write a review paper on applications of OSL in medicine and biology to the journal Physics in Medicine and Biology.

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"In summary, the authors have done a commendable job of reviewing the recent literature and bringing it out in a form of a book. The review is comprehensive that is well written and would be useful to the intended audience of not only students or postdoctoral fellows but also researchers and the dosimetry community." (Radiation Protection Dosimetry, 16 November 2011)
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Do you think you've discovered an error in this book? Please check the list of errata below to see if we've already addressed the error. If not, please submit the error via our Errata Form. We will attempt to verify your error; if you're right, we will post a correction below.

ChapterPageDetailsDatePrint Run
Three 127 Errata for figure caption to figure 3.7
The reference should read ?Figure 3.7 Photon energy response relative to the response to 137Cs gamma rays for some TLD materials (LiF:Mg,Ti, LiF:Mg,Cu,P and Li2B4O7:Cu), as well as the ratio between the mass energy absorption coefficients with respect to air. Reprinted from Olko, P., Currivan, L., Van Dijk, J.W.E. et al. (2006b) Thermoluminescent detectors applied in individual monitoring of radiation workers in Europe ? a review based on the EURADOS questionnaire. Radiat. Prot. Dosim., 120, 298?302.
20th April 2011 First 395; Total 780
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