An Introduction to Forensic Genetics, 2nd Edition
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1 Introduction to forensic genetics.
A brief history of forensic genetics.
2 DNA structure and the genome.
Organization of DNA into chromosomes.
The structure of the human genome.
Genetic diversity of modern humans.
The genome and forensic genetics.
Single nucleotide polymorphisms.
3 Biological material–collection, characterization and storage.
Sources of biological evidence.
Collection and handling of material at the crime scene.
Identification and characterization of biological evidence.
Sexual and physical assault.
Storage of biological material.
4 DNA extraction and quantification.
General principles of DNA extraction.
DNA extraction from challenging samples.
Quantification of DNA.
DNA IQ system.
5 Polymerase chain reaction.
The evolution of PCR-based profiling in forensic genetics.
DNA replication: the basis of the PCR.
The components of PCR.
Taq DNA polymerase.
The PCR process.
Sensitivity and contamination.
The PCR laboratory.
6 The analysis of short tandem repeats.
Structure of STR loci.
The development of STR multiplexes.
Detection of STR polymorphisms.
Interpretation of STR profiles.
7 Assessment of STR profiles.
Split peaks (±N).
Low template DNA typing.
8 Statistical interpretation of STR profiles.
Deviation from the Hardy–Weinberg equilibrium.
Statistical tests to determine deviation from the Hardy–Weinberg equilibrium.
Estimating the frequencies of STR profiles.
Corrections to allele frequency databases.
Which population frequency database should be used?
9 Evaluation and presentation of DNA evidence.
Hierarchies of propositions.
Comparison of three approaches.
10 Databases of DNA profiles.
The UK National DNA Database.
Legislation in England and Wales.
11 Kinship testing.
Identification of human remains.
12 Single nucleotide polymorphisms.
SNPs–occurrence and structure.
Detection of SNPs.
SNP detection for forensic applications.
Forensic applications of SNPs.
SNPs compared with STR loci.
13 Lineage markers.
Applications of mtDNA profiling.
Haplotypes and haplogroups.
The Y chromosome.
Forensic applications of Y chromosome polymorphisms.
14 Non-human DNA typing.
Non-human sample types.
Linkage to an individual using STR Loci.
Linkage to an individual using mitochondrial loci.
Microbial DNA testing.
Appendix A: Forensic parameters.
Appendix B: Useful web links.