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WiMAX Security and Quality of Service: An End-to-End Perspective

Seok-Yee Tang (Editor), Peter Muller (Editor), Hamid Sharif (Editor)
ISBN: 978-0-470-72197-1
418 pages
August 2010
WiMAX Security and Quality of Service: An End-to-End Perspective (0470721979) cover image

Description

WiMAX is the first standard technology to deliver true broadband mobility at speeds that enable powerful multimedia applications such as Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP), online gaming, mobile TV, and personalized infotainment. WiMAX Security and Quality of Service, focuses on the interdisciplinary subject of advanced Security and Quality of Service (QoS) in WiMAX wireless telecommunication systems including its models, standards, implementations, and applications. Split into 4 parts, Part A of the book is an end-to-end overview of the WiMAX architecture, protocol, and system requirements. Security is an essential element in the wireless world and Part B is fully dedicated to this topic. Part C provides an in depth analysis of QoS, including mobility management in WiMAX. Finally, Part D introduces the reader to advanced and future topics.

  • One of the first texts to cover security, QoS and deployments of WiMAX in the same book.
  • Introduces the primary concepts of the interdisciplinary nature of WiMAX security and QoS, and also includes discussion of hot topics in the field.
  • Written for engineers and researchers, answering practical questions from industry and the experimental field in academia.
  • Explains how WiMAX applications’ security and QoS are interconnected and interworked among the cross layers.
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Table of Contents

Preface xv

Acknowledgement xix

List of Contributors xxi

List of Acronyms xxv

List of Figures xxxv

List of Tables xxxix

Part A Introduction 1

1 Overview of End-to-End WiMAX Network Architecture 3
Dr Mohuya Chakraborty and Dr Debika Bhattacharyya

1.1 Introduction 3

1.2 Wireless Primer 4

1.2.1 Wireless Network Topologies 4

1.2.2 Wireless Technologies 4

1.2.3 Performance Parameters of Wireless Networks 5

1.2.4 WiFi and WiMAX 6

1.3 Introduction to WiMAX Technology 6

1.3.1 Operational Principles 7

1.3.2 WiMAX Speed and Range 8

1.3.3 Spectrum 9

1.3.4 Limitations 10

1.3.5 Need for WiMAX 10

1.4 Mobile WiMAX 10

1.4.1 Overview of Mobile WiMAX 10

1.4.2 Handover Process in Mobile WiMAX 11

1.4.3 LTE vs. Mobile WiMAX 12

1.5 Overview of End-to-End WiMAX Network Architecture 12

1.6 Radio Interface Specifications for WiMAX 16

1.6.1 Overview 16

1.6.2 802.16e-2005 Technology 17

1.6.3 Applications 19

1.6.4 WiMAX Simulation Tools 19

1.7 Interoperability Issues in WiMAX 19

1.8 Summary 21

References 22

Part B Security 23

2 WiMAX Security Defined in 802.16 Standards 25
Slim Rekhis and Noureddine Boudriga

2.1 Introduction 25

2.2 Overview of 802.16 WMAN Networks 26

2.2.1 IEEE 802.16 Standards and Connectivity Modes 26

2.2.2 Network Architecture 28

2.2.3 Protocol Architecture 31

2.2.4 Network Entry Procedure 32

2.3 Security Requirements for Broadband Access in WMAN Networks 33

2.4 Security Mechanisms in Initial 802.16 Networks 35

2.4.1 Security Associations 35

2.4.2 Use of Certificates 37

2.4.3 PKM Protocol 38

2.4.4 PKM Authorization 38

2.4.5 Privacy and Key Management 41

2.4.6 Data Encryption 42

2.5 Analysis of Security Weaknesses in Initial Versions of 802.16 42

2.5.1 Physical-Level Based Attacks 43

2.5.2 Attacks on Authentication 44

2.5.3 Attacks on Key Management 45

2.5.4 Attacks on Privacy 47

2.5.5 Attacks on Availability 47

2.6 Security Amendments in Recent Versions if IEEE 802.16 48

2.6.1 Authorization, Mutual Authentication and Access Control 48

2.6.2 TEK Three-Way Handshake 50

2.6.3 Encryption and Key Hierarchy 51

2.6.4 Multicast and Broadcast Service (MBS) 52

2.6.5 Security of Handover Schemes 53

2.7 Analysis of Security Weaknesses in 802.16e 54

2.7.1 Attacks on Authorization 54

2.7.2 Analysis of SA-TEK Three-Way Handshake 56

2.7.3 Vulnerability to Denial of Service Attacks 56

2.7.4 Broadcasting and Multicasting Related Weaknesses 58

2.7.5 Weaknesses in Handover Schemes 59

2.8 Further Reading 59

2.9 Summary 60

References 60

3 Key Management in 802.16e 63
Georgios Kambourakis and Stefanos Gritzalis

3.1 Introduction 63

3.2 Privacy Key Management Protocol 64

3.3 PKM Version 1 65

3.4 PKM Version 2 67

3.4.1 Security Negotiation 68

3.4.2 Authentication/Authorization 68

3.4.3 Key Derivation and Hierarchy 70

3.4.4 Three-Way Handshake 72

3.4.5 Key Delivery 74

3.5 Vulnerabilities and Countermeasures 75

3.5.1 Authorization 76

3.5.2 Key Derivation 76

3.5.3 Three-Way Handshake 77

3.5.4 Key Delivery 77

3.5.5 Attacks on Confidentiality 78

3.5.6 MBS Attacks 79

3.5.7 Mesh Mode Considerations 80

3.5.8 Handovers 81

3.6 Comparisons with 802.11/UMTS 81

3.7 Summary 84

References 85

4 WiMAX Network Security 87
Luca Adamo, Romano Fantacci and Leonardo Maccari

4.1 Introduction 87

4.2 WiMAX Network Reference Model 88

4.2.1 Functional Entities 89

4.2.2 Logical Domains 90

4.2.3 Reference Points 90

4.2.4 ASN Profiles 91

4.3 The RADIUS Server 92

4.3.1 Authentication in WiMAX Infrastructure 93

4.4 WiMAX Networking Procedures and Security 95

4.4.1 Handover Procedure 95

4.4.2 DHCP 97

4.4.3 Security Issues 98

4.4.4 Mobile IP Protocol 99

4.4.5 PMIP 100

4.4.6 PMIP Security Considerations 101

4.4.7 CMIP 102

4.4.8 CMIP Security Considerations 103

4.4.9 QoS 104

4.4.10 A Complete Authentication Procedure 104

4.5 Further Reading 105

4.6 Summary 106

References 107

Part C Quality of Service 109

5 Cross-Layer End-to-End QoS Architecture: The Milestone of WiMAX 111
Floriano De Rango, Andrea Malfitano and Salvatore Marano

5.1 Introduction 111

5.2 QoS Definitions 112

5.3 QoS Mechanisms Offered by IEEE 802.16 112

5.3.1 Cross-Layer QoS Architecture 113

5.3.2 MAC Layer Point of View 115

5.3.3 Offering QoS in PMP Mode 117

5.3.4 QoS Introduction in Mesh Mode 121

5.3.5 QoS Application on Packet by Packet Basis 123

5.3.6 PHY Layer Point of View 124

5.3.7 ACM: Adaptive Coding and Modulation 125

5.3.8 Mobility Support in IEEE 802.16 126

5.4 What is Missing in the WiMAX Features? 128

5.4.1 Absences in the MAC Layer 128

5.4.2 Scheduling Algorithm 129

5.4.3 Call Admission Control Algorithm 132

5.4.4 PHY Layer Improvements 133

5.4.5 QoS Based ACM Algorithm 133

5.5 Future Challenges 134

5.5.1 End-to-End QoS in the IP World 134

5.5.2 New Ways to Resolve the WiMAX QoS Problem: Two Interesting Examples 136

5.5.3 Game Theory in the WiMAX Scenario 136

5.5.4 Fuzzy Logic: What Idea to Guarantee QoS? 138

5.5.5 Designing Mobility – Mesh WiMAX 140

5.5.6 How to Extend QoS Mechanisms 140

5.6 Summary 141

References 141

6 QoS in Mobile WiMAX 145
Neila Krichene and Noureddine Boudriga

6.1 Introduction 145

6.2 Architectural QoS Requirements 146

6.2.1 QoS-Related Challenges 146

6.2.2 Architectural Requirements 148

6.3 Mobile WiMAX Service Flows 149

6.3.1 Service Flows 150

6.3.2 Scheduling Services Supporting Service Flows 151

6.3.3 QoS Parameters 153

6.4 Admission Control 154

6.4.1 MAC Layer Connections 154

6.4.2 Bandwidth Request Procedures 156

6.4.3 Bandwidth Allocation Procedures 158

6.5 Scheduling Service 160

6.5.1 Scheduling Architecture in Mobile WiMAX 160

6.5.2 Packet Schedulers Overview 162

6.6 Maintaining QoS During Handover 165

6.6.1 WiMAX Handover Schemes 165

6.6.2 Optimizing Handover to Maintain the Required QoS 168

6.7 Enhancing WiMAX QoS Issues: Research Work 170

6.7.1 New QoS Mechanisms 171

6.7.2 The WEIRD Project 171

6.7.3 WiFi and WiMAX QoS Integration 173

6.8 Further Reading 175

6.9 Summary 176

References 176

7 Mobility Management in WiMAX Networks 179
Ikbal Chammakhi Msadaa, Daniel Cˆamara and Fethi Filali

7.1 Mobile WiMAX Architecture 180

7.2 Horizontal Handover in 802.16e 183

7.2.1 Network Topology Acquisition 183

7.2.2 Handover Process 186

7.2.3 Fast BS Switching (FBSS) and Macro Diversity Handover (MDHO) 187

Discussion 188

7.3 Optimized 802.16e Handover Schemes 188

7.3.1 L2 Handover Schemes 190

7.3.2 L2-L3 Cross-Layer Handover Schemes 190

7.3.3 Mobile IPv6 Fast Handovers Over IEEE 802.16e Networks 191

Discussion 195

7.4 Vertical Handover 195

7.4.1 Vertical Handover Mechanisms Involving 802.16e Networks 196

7.4.2 IEEE 802.21, Media-Independent Handover Services 197

Discussion 200

7.5 Roaming 200

7.5.1 WiMAX Roaming Interface 203

7.5.2 The Roaming Process 203

7.6 Mobility Management in WiMESH Networks 204

7.7 Conclusion 207

7.8 Summary 207

References 208

Part D Advanced Topics 211

8 QoS Challenges in the Handover Process 213
Marina Aguado, Eduardo Jacob, Marion Berbineau and Ivan Lledo Samper

8.1 Introduction 213

8.2 Handover in WiMAX 214

8.3 The IEEE802.16 Handover Process 215

8.3.1 The Network Entry Procedure 215

8.3.2 Network Topology Advertising and Acquisition 218

8.3.3 The Association Procedure 220

8.3.4 Handover Stages in the IEEE 802.16 Standard 221

8.3.5 Handover Execution Methods 225

8.4 The Media Independent Handover Initiative – IEEE 802.21 227

8.4.1 MIH Interactions with Layer 2 and Layer 3 Protocols 229

8.4.2 MIH Scope and Limitations 229

8.5 Enhancing the Handover Process 230

8.5.1 Fast Ranging Mechanism 230

8.5.2 Seamless Handover Mechanism 231

8.5.3 Initiatives in the Cell Reselection Stage 232

8.5.4 Initiatives in the Execution Stage 232

8.6 Handover Scheduling 233

8.7 Handover Performance Analysis 234

8.8 Summary 238

References 238

9 Resource Allocation in Mobile WiMAX Networks 241
Tara Ali Yahiya

9.1 Introduction 241

9.2 Background on IEEE 802.16e 242

9.2.1 The Medium Access Control Layer – MAC 242

9.2.2 The Physical Layer – PHY 243

9.3 System Model 248

9.4 OFDMA Key Principles–Analysis and Performance Characterizations 249

9.4.1 Multiuser Diversity 249

9.4.2 Adaptive Modulation and Coding – Burst Profiles 250

9.4.3 Capacity Analysis – Time and Frequency Domain 250

9.4.4 Mapping Messages 252

9.5 Cross-Layer Resource Allocation in Mobile WiMAX 252

9.6 Channel Aware Class Based Queue (CACBQ) – The Proposed Solution 253

9.6.1 System Model 253

9.6.2 Channel Aware Class Based Queue (CACBQ) Framework 255

9.7 Summary and Conclusion 257

References 258

10 QoS Issues and Challenges in WiMAX and WiMAX MMR Networks 261
Kiran Kumari, Srinath Narasimha and Krishna M. Sivalingam

10.1 Introduction 261

10.1.1 Motivation 262

10.2 Multimedia Traffic 263

10.2.1 Voice Codecs 264

10.2.2 Video Codecs 265

10.2.3 QoS Specifications 267

10.2.4 QoS Effectiveness Measures 268

10.3 Multimedia: WiFi versus WiMAX 269

10.3.1 Limitations of Wireless LAN Technologies 269

10.3.2 WiMAX MAC Layer 270

10.3.3 QoS Architecture for WiMAX 272

10.4 QoS Scheduling in WiMAX Networks 273

10.4.1 Max-Min Weighted Fair Allocation 274

10.4.2 Deficit Fair Priority Queue 274

10.4.3 Weighted Fair Queuing 275

10.4.4 Weighted Fair Priority Queuing 275

10.5 Voice Traffic Scheduling in WiMAX 276

10.5.1 Lee’s Algorithm 276

10.5.2 UGS with Activity Detection Scheduling (UGS-AD) 277

10.5.3 Extended-rtPS Scheduling 277

10.5.4 Multi-Tap Scheduling 278

10.6 Video Traffic Scheduling in WiMAX 279

10.6.1 Opportunistic Scheduling 279

10.6.2 Opportunistic DRR 281

10.6.3 Summary 282

10.7 Introduction to WiMAX MMR Networks 282

10.7.1 How WiMAX MMR Networks Work 284

10.7.2 Performance Impact 286

10.7.3 Radio Resource Management Strategies 287

10.8 Scheduling in WiMAX MMR Networks 288

10.8.1 Objectives of Scheduling 288

10.8.2 Constraints on Scheduling 289

10.8.3 Diversity Gains 290

10.9 Basic Wireless Scheduling Algorithms 290

10.9.1 Round Robin Scheduling 290

10.9.2 Max-SINR Scheduling 291

10.9.3 Extension for Multi-Hop Case 291

10.9.4 Proportional Fair Scheduling 292

10.9.5 Extension for Multi-Hop Case 292

10.9.6 Performance Comparison 293

10.9.7 The PFMR Scheduling Algorithm 293

10.10 Scheduling Algorithms for WiMAX MMR Networks 294

10.10.1 The Scheduling Problem 294

10.10.2 The GenArgMax Scheduling Algorithm 295

10.10.3 The TreeTraversingScheduler Algorithm 297

10.10.4 The FastHeuristic16j Scheduling Algorithm 299

10.10.5 Improved Hop-Specific Scheduling Algorithms 300

10.10.6 Performance Evaluation 302

10.11 Further Reading 304

10.12 Summary 305

References 305

11 On the Integration of WiFi and WiMAX Networks 309
Tara Ali Yahiya and Hakima Chaouchi

11.1 Introduction 309

11.2 General Design Principles of the Interworking Architecture 310

11.2.1 Functional Decomposition 310

11.2.2 Deployment Modularity and Flexibility 310

11.2.3 Support for Variety of Usage Models 311

11.2.4 Extensive use of IETF Protocols 311

11.3 WiFi/Mobile WiMAX Interworking Architecture 311

11.4 Network Discovery and Selection 313

11.5 Authentication and Security Architecture 314

11.5.1 General Network Access Control Architecture 314

11.5.2 EAP and PANA 316

11.5.3 RADIUS and Diameter 317

11.6 Security in WiFi and WiMAX Networks 318

11.6.1 Security in WiFi 318

11.6.2 Security in WiMAX 319

11.6.3 Security Consideration in WiFi-WiMAX 320

11.6.4 WiFi-WiMAX Interworking Scenarios 321

11.7 Mobility Management 324

11.7.1 Handover Support 325

11.7.2 Cell Selection 325

11.7.3 IP for Mobility Management 326

11.7.4 Session Initiation Protocol for Mobility Management 326

11.7.5 Identity Based Mobility 328

11.8 Quality of Service Architecture 330

11.8.1 End-to-End QoS Interworking Framework 330

11.8.2 QoS Considerations 332

11.9 Summary 335

References 335

12 QoS Simulation and An Enhanced Solution of Cell Selection for WiMAX Network 337
Xinbing Wang, Shen Gu, Yuan Wu and Jiajing Wang

12.1 Introduction 337

12.2 WiMAX Simulation Tools – Overview 338

12.2.1 NS2 338

12.2.2 OPNet Modeler 338

12.2.3 QualNet 339

12.3 QoS Simulation of WiMAX Network 339

12.3.1 Performance Comparison Between Different Services 339

12.3.2 Mobility Support 344

12.4 Analysis of QoS Simulation Results 353

12.4.1 Fixed SSs 353

12.4.2 Mobile SSs with Same Speed 356

12.4.3 Mobile SSs with Varying Speed 356

12.5 Enhancement – A New Solution of Cell Selection 356

12.5.1 System Model 356

12.5.2 Simulation Result 360

12.6 Summary 363

References 363

Appendix List of Standards 365

Index 371

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Author Information

SEOK YEE TANG has specialized in wireless communications systems throughout her 23 year career, gaining research, practical, management and leadership experience for military, industry and academic applications. In recent years she has worked with a varied range of companies over three continents. Her wireless communications career started with servicing UHF and VHF and HF radio communications sets used for the communications link between the Air Communications Operations Officers and the Air Force Pilots. She also upheld several leadership positions in her military career. Besides her career in Singapore Air Force, she has also worked for Microwave Communication Inc (MCI) in United States. Other universities and companies she has worked for include Mobile Research Group in University of Surrey in United Kingdom, University of Puerto Rico, Institute of Infocomm Singapore, and NEC in United Kingdom. She has also been an active member of the Technical Program Committees for several international Wireless Communications conferences since 2005. Conferences that she has contributed to organizing include Globecom, VTC and Chinacom. In 2008 she left the corporate world and is presently a financial market trader and also an entrepreneur.

PETER MÜLLER joined the IBM Zurich Research Laboratory as a Research Staff Member in 1988, and was appointed the secretary of the IEEE Technical Committee on Communications and Information Systems Security in 2007. His research expertise covers a broad range of areas from information systems architecture and simulation techniques to device physics and nano-science. He holds a number of patents, has published more than 50 scientific articles, books, special journal issues and proceedings, as well as serving as a government counsel and chairing many international conferences and workshops.

DR. HAMID R. SHARIF is the Henson Distinguished Professor of the Computer and Electronics Engineering Department and the Director of Advanced Telecommunications Engineering Laboratory (TEL) at the University of Nebraska-Lincoln. His current research interests include protocols, security, OoS and performance evaluations in wireless communications and networks. He has authored and co-authored over 160 technical papers in major international journals and refereed conferences. He serves as Steering Committee member, Symposium Chair and General Co-Chair of many international conferences, and also contributes as the Editor, Associate Editor, or Editorial Board member for several journals. He is the Co-Editor-in-Chief of Wiley’s Security and Communication Networks and a senior member of many professional organizations including IEEE. As the current Chapters Coordinator for IEEE Region 4, he is also the past Chair of the IEEE Nebraska Section and past President of the IEEE Nebraska Computer and Communications Societies.

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