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Electromagnetic Foundations of Electrical Engineering

ISBN: 978-0-470-72709-6
420 pages
September 2008
Electromagnetic Foundations of Electrical Engineering (0470727098) cover image
The applications of electromagnetic phenomena within electrical engineering have been evolving and progressing at a fast pace. In contrast, the underlying principles have been stable for a long time and are not expected to undergo any changes. It is these electromagnetic field fundamentals that are the subject of discussion in this book with an emphasis on basic principles, concepts and governing laws that apply across the electrical engineering discipline.

Electromagnetic Foundations of Electrical Engineering begins with an explanation of Maxwell’s equations, from which the fundamental laws and principles governing the static and time-varying electric and magnetic fields are derived. Results for both slowly- and rapidly-varying electromagnetic field problems are discussed in detail.

Key aspects:

  • Offers a project portfolio, with detailed solutions included on the companion website, which draws together aspects from various chapters so as to ensure comprehensive understanding of the fundamentals.
  • Provides end-of-chapter homework problems with a focus on engineering applications.
  • Progresses chapter by chapter to increasingly more challenging topics, allowing the reader to grasp the more simple phenomena and build upon these foundations.
  • Enables the reader to attain a level of competence to subsequently progress to more advanced topics such as electrical machines, power system analysis, electromagnetic compatibility, microwaves and radiation.

This book is aimed at electrical engineering students and faculty staff in sub-disciplines as diverse as power and energy systems, circuit theory and telecommunications. It will also appeal to existing electrical engineering professionals with a need for a refresher course in electromagnetic foundations.

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PREFACE.

To the Electrical Engineer Practitioner.

To the Student.

To the Instructor.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS.

PROJECT PORTFOLIO.

Analysis of a power delivery system.

Cylindrical type transmission lines.

DC current transducer.

Determination of the conductivity of a circular conducting disk.

Directional coupler analysis.

Ill-defined grounding problems.

Induction machine analysis.

Line matching technique using an exponential transmission-line section.

Linear variable differential transformer.

Magnetic actuator and sensor device.

Overhead-line protection by ground-wires.

Power line carrier communication.

Pseudo-balanced three-phase lines.

Screened high-voltage three-phase installation.

Shielded three-phase cable analysis.

Three-route microwave splitter.

Transmission-line system with balun transformer for even to odd-mode conversion.

Transmission-line system with transformer-stage matching.

Two-way loudspeaker analysis.

Variable reluctance transformer.

PART I: A BRIEF OVERVIEW.

INTRODUCTION.

CHAPTER 1: BASIC FIELD VECTORS.

1.1: The Electric and Magnetic Field Vectors.

1.2: Constitutive Relations.

1.3: Units and Notation.

1.4: Fundamental Concepts of Voltage and Current Intensity.

PART II: STATIONARY FIELD PHENOMENA.

INTRODUCTION.

CHAPTER 2: ELECTROSTATICS.

2.1 Fundamental Equations.

2.2 Gradient Electric Field, Electric Potential, Voltage, Kirchhoff’s Voltage Law.

2.3 Electric Charge, Electric Displacement Vector.

2.4 Dielectric Media, Permittivity, Polarization, Dielectric Strength.

2.5 Conductors in Electrostatic Equilibrium.

2.6 Application Example (Filament of charge).

2.7 Capacitor, Capacitance, Electric Energy.

2.8 Application Example (Two-wire transmission line).

2.9 Multiple Conductor Systems.

2.10 Application Example (Electric coupling in printed circuit boards).

2.11 Electric Forces and Torques.

2.12 Homework Proposed Problems.

CHAPTER 3: STATIONARY CURRENTS.

3.1 Fundamental Equations.

3.2 Conductivity, Current Density, Electric Circuits.

3.3 Current Intensity, Kirchhoff’s Current Law.

3.4 Resistor, Conductance, Resistance, Ohm's Law.

3.5 Application Example (The potentiometer).

3.6 Application Example (The Wheatstone bridge).

3.7 Joule Losses, Generator Applied Field.

3.8 Generator Electromotive Force, Power Balance.

3.9 Homework Proposed Problems.

CHAPTER 4: MAGNETIC FIELD OF STATIONARY CURRENTS.

4.1 Fundamental Equations.

4.2 Ampère’s Law, Magnetomotive Force, Magnetic Voltage.

4.3 Magnetic Induction Field, Magnetic Induction Flux.

4.4 Application Example (Power line magnetic fields).

4.5 Magnetic Materials, Ferromagnetic Media, Saturation and Hysteresis.

4.6 Magnetic Circuits.

4.7 Application Example (Three-legged transformer).

4.8 Magnetic Reluctance.

4.9 Inductor, Inductance, Magnetic Flux Linkage, Magnetic Energy.

4.10 Application Example (Coaxial cable).

4.11 Hysteresis Losses.

4.12 Multiple Circuit Systems.

4.13 Magnetic Forces and Torques.

4.14 Application Example (U-shaped electromagnet).

4.15 Homework Proposed Problems.

PART III: SLOW TIME-VARYING FIELDS.

INTRODUCTION.

CHAPTER 5: MAGNETIC INDUCTION PHENOMENA.

5.1 Fundamental Equations.

5.2 Gradient and Induction Electric Fields, Potential Vector.

5.3 Revisiting the Voltage Concept.

5.4 Induction Law.

5.5 Application Example (Magnetic noise effects).

5.6 Voltages and Currents in Magnetically Multicoupled Systems.

5.7 Application Example (Magnetic coupling in printed circuit boards).

5.8 Eddy Currents.

5.9 Generalization of the Induction Law to Moving Circuit Systems.

5.10 Application Example (Electromechanical energy conversion).

5.11 DC Voltage Generation.

5.12 AC Voltage Generation.

5.13 Homework Proposed Problems.

CHAPTER 6: ELECTRIC INDUCTION PHENOMENA.

6.1 Fundamental Equations.

6.2 Displacement Current, Generalized Ampère’s Law.

6.3 Charge Continuity Equation.

6.4 Revisiting the Current Intensity Concept.

6.5 Application Example (Capacitor self-discharge).

6.6 Voltages and Currents in Electrically Multicoupled Systems.

6.7 Homework Proposed Problems.

CHAPTER 7: LUMPED PARAMETERS CIRCUIT ANALYSIS.

7.1 Introduction.

7.2 Steady-State Harmonic Regimes.

7.3 Transformer Analysis.

7.4 Transient Regimes.

7.5 Homework Proposed Problems.

PART IV: RAPID TIME-VARYING FIELDS.

INTRODUCTION.

CHAPTER 8: ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELD PHENOMENA.

8.1 Electromagnetic Waves.

8.2 Poynting’s Theorem, Poynting’s Vector, Power Flow.

8.3 Time-Harmonic Fields, Field Polarization, RMS Field Values.

8.4 Phasor-Domain Maxwell Equations, Material Media Constitutive Relations.

8.5 Application Example (Uniform plane waves).

8.6 Complex Poynting’s Vector.

8.7 Application Example (Skin effect).

8.8 Homework Proposed Problems.

CHAPTER 9: TRANSMISSION LINE ANALYSIS.

9.1 Introduction.

9.2 Time-Domain Transmission-Line Equations for Lossless Lines.

9.3 Application Example (Parallel-plate transmission line).

9.4 Frequency-Domain Transmission-Line Equations for Lossy Lines.

9.5 Frequency-Domain Transmission-Line Equations for Lossless Lines.

9.6 Application Example (Line matching techniques).

9.7 Multiconductor Transmission Lines.

9.8 Application Example (Even and odd modes).

9.9 Homework Proposed Problems.

APPENDICES.

Appendix 1: Formulas from Vector Analysis.

Appendix 2: Lorentz Transformation.

Appendix 3: Elements of Complex Algebra.

Appendix 4: Elements of Fourier Analysis.

BIBLIOGRAPHY.

INDEX.

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J. A. Brandão Faria received his PhD degree and aggregate title in electrical engineering from the Instituto Superior Técnico of the Technical University of Lisbon, where, since 1994, he has been a Full Professor of Electrical Engineering teaching undergraduate and graduate courses in electromagnetics. His teaching activities also include lecturing courses at the Portuguese Air Force Academy.
Professor Brandão Faria was a senior scientist with the former Centro de Electrotecnia Teórica e Medidas Eléctricas where he served as President from 1994 until 2000. Since 2008, he has been at the recently created CIEEE (Center for Innovation in Electrical Engineering and Energy).
Professor Brandão Faria was the recipient of two Honorable Mentions awarded in 1994 and 2007 by the Portuguese State Department of Science and Technology, and by the Technical University of Lisbon, respectively. His areas of interest include electromagnetic field problems, power lines, and wave propagation phenomena in multiconductor transmission lines. He is the author of two books on electrical engineering subjects, namely Optica and Multiconductor Transmission-Line Structures, and has published over 100 technical papers.
Professor Brandão Faria is a member of the Editorial Board of the European Transactions on Electrical Power (John Wiley & Sons, Ltd) and a senior member of the IEEE.
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“Electromagnetic Foundations of Electrical Engineering certainly lives up to its name by providing a very useful treatment of Maxwell’s equations which should help students understand why they need to learn field theory and how it impacts their jobs and daily life.” (IEEE Microwave Magazine, June 2009)
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Electromagnetic Foundations of Electrical EngineeringVisit the books website for more information and resources.
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