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Vehicular Networking: Automotive Applications and Beyond

Marc Emmelmann (Editor), Bernd Bochow (Co-Editor), Christopher Kellum (Co-Editor)
ISBN: 978-0-470-74154-2
314 pages
May 2010
Vehicular Networking: Automotive Applications and Beyond (0470741546) cover image

Description

During the last 15 years, the interest in vehicular communication has grown, especially in the automotive industry. Due to the envisioned mass market, projects focusing on Car-to-X communication experience high public visibility. This book presents vehicular communication in a broader perspective that includes more than just its application to the automotive industry. It provides, researchers, engineers, decision makers and graduate students in wireless communications with an introduction to vehicular communication focussing on car-to-x and train-based systems.
  • Emphasizes important perspectives of vehicular communication including market area, application areas, and standardization issues as well as selected topics featuring aspects of developing, prototyping, and testing vehicular communication systems.
  • Supports the reader in understanding common characteristics and differences between the various application areas of vehicular communication.
  • Offers both an overview of the application area and an in-depth discussion of key technologies in these areas.
  • Written by a wide range of experts in the field.
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Table of Contents

List of Contributors xiii

Preface xv

1 Commercial and Public Use Applications 1
Dr. Hariharan Krishnan, Dr. Fan Bai and Dr. Gavin Holland

1.1 Introduction 2

1.1.1 Motivation 3

1.1.2 Contributions and benefits 3

1.1.3 Chapter organization 4

1.2 V2XApplications from the User Benefits Perspective 4

1.2.1 Application value 5

1.3 Application Characteristics and Network Attributes 8

1.3.1 Application characteristics 8

1.3.2 Network attributes 10

1.4 Application Classification and Categorization 12

1.4.1 Characterization based on application characteristics 12

1.4.2 Characterization based on network attributes 15

1.4.3 Application classification . . . . 18

1.5 Market Perspectives and Challenges for Deployment 21

1.5.1 Fleet penetration 21

1.5.2 System rollout options 21

1.5.3 Market penetration analysis 23

1.5.4 System rollout 25

1.5.5 Role of infrastructure 25

1.6 Summary and Conclusions 26

References 27

2 Governmental and Military Applications 29
Anthony Maida

2.1 Introduction 29

2.2 Vehicular Networks for First Responders 30

2.2.1 Public safety communications 30

2.2.2 Vehicular communications 31

2.3 The Need for Public Safety Vehicular Networks 33

2.4 State of Vehicular Network Technology 35

2.4.1 Incident Area Networks 35

2.4.2 Jurisdictional Area Networks 36

2.4.3 Extended Area Networks 38

2.5 Vehicular Networks for Military Use 40

2.6 Conclusions 42

References 42

3 Communication Systems for Car-2-X Networks 45
Daniel D. Stancil, Fan Bai and Lin Cheng

3.1 Overview of theV2XEnvironment 46

3.1.1 Vehicle-to-Infrastructure 46

3.1.2 Vehicle-to-Vehicle 46

3.1.3 Antenna requirements 47

3.2 V2XChannel Models 48

3.2.1 Deterministic models 48

3.2.2 Geometry-based statistical models 48

3.2.3 Multi-tap models 50

3.3 V2XChannelProperties 50

3.3.1 Empirical measurement platform 51

3.3.2 Large-scale path loss 51

3.3.3 Fading statistics 53

3.3.4 Coherence time and Doppler spectrum 53

3.3.5 Coherence bandwidth and delay spread profile 56

3.4 Performance of 802.11p in the V2X Channel 58

3.4.1 Impact of channel properties on OFDM 59

3.4.2 Potential equalization enhancement schemes 61

3.5 Vehicular Ad hoc Network Multichannel Operation 61

3.5.1 Multichannel MAC (IEEE 1609.4) 62

3.5.2 Performance evaluation of the IEEE 1609.4 multichannel MAC 63

3.5.3 Other solutions for multichannel operations 65

3.6 Vehicular Ad hoc Network Single-hop Broadcast and its Reliability Enhancement Schemes 66

3.6.1 Reliability analysis of DSRC single-hop broadcast scheme 66

3.6.2 Reliability analysis of DSRC-based VSC applications 68

3.6.3 Reliability enhancement schemes for single-hop broadcast scheme 69

3.7 Vehicular Ad hoc Network Multi-hop Information Dissemination Protocol Design 71

3.7.1 Multi-hop broadcast protocols in dense VANETs 71

3.7.2 Multi-hop broadcast protocols in sparse VANETs 73

3.8 Mobile IP Solution in VANETs 75

3.8.1 Mobile IP solution 75

3.8.2 Mobile IP solution tailored to VANET scenarios 76

3.9 Future Research Directions and Challenges 77

3.9.1 Physical layer perspective 77

3.9.2 Networking perspective 77

References 78

4 Communication Systems for Railway Applications 83
Benoît Bouchez and Luc de Coen

4.1 Evolution of Embedded Computers and Communication Networks in Railway Applications 83

4.2 Train Integration in a Global Communication Framework 84

4.3 Communication Classes and Related Communication Requirements 85

4.3.1 Real-time data 85

4.3.2 Non-real-time message data 86

4.3.3 Streaming data 88

4.4 Expected Services from a Railway Communication System and the Related Requirements 88

4.4.1 Automatic Train Control 88

4.4.2 Passenger Information System 89

4.4.3 Video 90

4.4.4 Maintenance 91

4.4.5 On-board Internet access 91

4.5 Qualitative and Quantitative Approach for Dimensioning Wireless Links 92

4.5.1 Environmental influence 92

4.5.2 Global propagation model 92

4.5.3 Train motion influence 93

4.5.4 Regulation and licensing 93

4.6 Existing Wireless Systems Applicable to Railway Communication Systems 93

4.6.1 Magnetic coupling technology 93

4.6.2 WLAN/WMAN technologies 94

4.6.3 Cellular technologies 96

4.6.4 Satellite link technologies 99

4.7 Networks for On-board Communication and Coupling with the Wayside 99

4.7.1 Multifunction Vehicle Bus 99

4.7.2 Wire Train Bus 100

4.7.3 Ethernet 100

4.7.4 Coupling on-board communication with wayside communication 100

4.8 Integration of Existing Technologies for Future Train Integration in a Global Communication Framework 101

4.8.1 European Rail Traffic Management System 101

4.8.2 MODURBAN Communication System 102

4.9 Conclusion 103

References 103

5 Security and Privacy Mechanisms for Vehicular Networks 105
Panos Papadimitratos

5.1 Introduction 105

5.2 Threats 107

5.3 Security Requirements 108

5.4 Secure VC Architecture Basic Elements 109

5.4.1 Authorities 109

5.4.2 Node identification 110

5.4.3 Trusted components 110

5.4.4 Secure communication 111

5.5 Secure and Privacy-enhancing Vehicular Communication 111

5.5.1 Basic security 111

5.5.2 Secure neighbor discovery 112

5.5.3 Secure position-based routing 113

5.5.4 Additional privacy-enhancing mechanisms 113

5.5.5 Reducing the cost of security and privacy enhancing mechanisms 115

5.6 Revocation 116

5.7 Data Trustworthiness 119

5.7.1 Securing location information 119

5.7.2 Message trustworthiness 121

5.8 Towards Deployment of Security and PET for VC 122

5.8.1 Revisiting basic design choices 122

5.8.2 Future challenges 124

5.9 Conclusions 125

References 125

6 Security and Dependability in Train Control Systems 129
Mark Hartong, Rajni Goel and Duminda Wijesekera

6.1 Introduction 130

6.2 Traditional Train Control and Methods of Rail Operation 130

6.2.1 Verbal authority and mandatory directives 131

6.2.2 Signal indications 131

6.3 Limitations of Current Train Control Technologies 132

6.4 Positive Train Control 132

6.4.1 Functions 133

6.4.2 Architectures 134

6.4.3 US communication-based systems 135

6.5 System Security 138

6.5.1 The security threat 138

6.5.2 Attacks 139

6.5.3 Required security attributes 141

6.5.4 Analysis of requirements 142

6.6 Supplementary Requirements 144

6.6.1 Performance management 144

6.6.2 Configuration management 145

6.6.3 Accounting, fault, and security management 145

6.7 Summary 146

References 146

7 Automotive Standardization of Vehicle Networks 149
Tom Schaffnit

7.1 General Concepts 149

7.1.1 Vehicle-to-Vehicle communications 150

7.1.2 Vehicle-to-Infrastructure communications 150

7.2 Interoperability 151

7.2.1 Regional requirements and differences 152

7.2.2 Necessity of standards 153

7.2.3 Insufficiency of standards 154

7.3 Wireless Protocols and Standardization Activities 154

7.3.1 OSI seven-layer protocol model 154

7.3.2 Standards activities relative to protocol layers 155

7.3.3 Cooperation required among different standards 156

7.4 Regional Standards Development Progress 157

7.4.1 North America 157

7.4.2 Europe 160

7.4.3 Japan 162

7.5 Global Standardization 163

7.5.1 Global standards development organizations and mechanisms 164

7.5.2 Allowances for regional differences 167

References 168

8 Standardization of Vehicle-to-Infrastructure Communication 171
Karine Gosse, David Bateman, Christophe Janneteau, Mohamed Kamoun, Mounir Kellil, Pierre Roux, Alexis Olivereau, Jean-Noël Patillon, Alexandru Petrescu, and Sheng Yang

8.1 Introduction 172

8.2 Overview of Standards and Consortia Providing Vehicle-to-Infrastructure Communication Solutions 173

8.2.1 Spectrum 173

8.2.2 Standards 174

8.3 Radio Access Standards for V2I Communications 178

8.3.1 IEEE 802.11p 178

8.3.2 Applicability of generic wide area radio access standards to Vehicle-to-Infrastructure (V2I)communications . . 181

8.4 Networking Standards forV2I Communications 185

8.4.1 Non-IP networking technologies for critical messaging 185

8.4.2 IP-based vehicular networking 186

8.5 Summary 198

References 198

9 Simulating Cooperative Vehicle-to-Infrastructure Systems: A Multi-Aspect Assessment Tool Suite 203
Gerdien Klunder, Isabel Wilmink and Bart van Arem

9.1 Introduction on Design and Evaluation of Cooperative Systems 204

9.2 Design Problems for Cooperative Systems 204

9.3 SUMMITS Tool Suite and Multi-Aspect Assessment 205

9.3.1 Multi-aspect assessment 205

9.3.2 The SUMMITS Tool Suite 206

9.3.3 Some practical aspects of the approach 207

9.4 Integrated Full-Range Speed Assistant 208

9.4.1 Modes and functions 208

9.4.2 Scenarios 209

9.4.3 IRSA controllers 209

9.5 System Robustness – Simulations with a Multi-Agent Real-Time Simulator 212

9.5.1 Aims of the simulation 212

9.5.2 Implementation of IRSA in MARS 213

9.5.3 Evaluation of robustness of  IRSA CACC controllers 215

9.5.4 Conclusions on the simulations with MARS 217

9.6 Traffic Flow Impacts–Simulations in the ITS Modeller 218

9.6.1 Aims of the simulations 218

9.6.2 Implementation of IRSA in the ITS modeller 219

9.6.3 Results for the ‘approaching a traffic jam’ scenario 221

9.6.4 Results for the ‘approaching a reduced speed limit zone’ scenario 222

9.6.5 Results for the ‘leaving the head of a queue’ scenario 223

9.6.6 Conclusions on the ITS modeller simulation results 224

9.7 Conclusions 224

References 225

10 System Design and Proof-of-Concept Implementation of Seamless Handover Support for Communication-Based Train Control 227
Marc Emmelmann

10.1 Introduction 228

10.2 Fast Handover for CBTC using Wi-Fi  229

10.2.1 Requirements of Communications-Based Train Control for fast handover support 229

10.2.2 Taxonomy of handover phases 230

10.2.3 IEEE 802.11 fast handover support 231

10.2.4 Challenges of CBTC for Wi-Fi-based fast handover support 239

10.3 System Concept and Design 239

10.3.1 System architecture 240

10.3.2 MAC scheme 241

10.3.3 Predictive fast handover 242

10.4 Implementation 243

10.4.1 Methodology 243

10.4.2 Proof-of-concept demonstrator 244

10.5 Performance Evaluation 245

10.5.1 Metric design 245

10.5.2 Empirical evaluation 247

10.6 Conclusion 253

References . . . . 253

11 New Technological Paradigms 257
Bernd Bochow

11.1 Evolution and Convergence of Vehicular Networks 258

11.2 Future Challenges 259

11.2.1 Handling network growth 259

11.2.2 Managing resources in adhoc scenarios 260

11.2.3 Enabling interworking, integration and convergence 261

11.2.4 Providing integrated on-board and vicinity communications 261

11.3 New Paradigms 262

11.3.1 RF LoS obstruction due to other vehicles in close vicinity 263

11.3.2 Increased demand for accuracy of positioning and time synchronization 263

11.3.3 Optimization of message RTT 263

11.3.4 Gaining and distributing knowledge on topology and resource availability in temporal, spatial and spectral dimensions 264

11.3.5 Efficient collaboration and cooperation in resource utilization 264

11.4 Outlook: the Role of Vehicular Networks in the Future Internet 265

References 267

Further Reading 271

Acronyms and Abbreviations 275

Subject Index 285

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