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Wireless Communications, 2nd Edition

ISBN: 978-0-470-74186-3
884 pages
December 2010, ©2010
Wireless Communications, 2nd Edition (0470741864) cover image
"Professor Andreas F. Molisch, renowned researcher and educator, has put together the comprehensive book, Wireless Communications. The second edition, which includes a wealth of new material on important topics, ensures the role of the text as the key resource for every student, researcher, and practitioner in the field."
Professor Moe Win, MIT, USA

Wireless communications has grown rapidly over the past decade from a niche market into one of the most important, fast moving industries. Fully updated to incorporate the latest research and developments, Wireless Communications, Second Edition provides an authoritative overview of the principles and applications of mobile communication technology.

The author provides an in-depth analysis of current treatment of the area, addressing both the traditional elements, such as Rayleigh fading, BER in flat fading channels, and equalisation, and more recently emerging topics such as multi-user detection in CDMA systems, MIMO systems, and cognitive radio. The dominant wireless standards; including cellular, cordless and wireless LANs; are discussed.

  • Topics featured include: wireless propagation channels, transceivers and signal processing, multiple access and advanced transceiver schemes, and standardised wireless systems.
  • Combines mathematical descriptions with intuitive explanations of the physical facts, enabling readers to acquire a deep understanding of the subject.
  • Includes new chapters on cognitive radio, cooperative communications and relaying, video coding, 3GPP Long Term Evolution, and WiMax; plus significant new sections on multi-user MIMO, 802.11n, and information theory.
  • Companion website featuring: supplementary material on 'DECT', solutions manual and presentation slides for instructors, appendices, list of abbreviations and other useful resources.
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Preface and Acknowledgements to the Second Edition xxiii

Preface to the First Edition xxv

Acknowledgments to the First Edition xxix

Abbreviations xxxi

Symbols xlvii

Part I INTRODUCTION 1

1 Applications and Requirements of Wireless Services 3

1.1 History 4

1.2 Types of Services 8

1.3 Requirements for the Services 16

1.4 Economic and Social Aspects 22

2 Technical Challenges of Wireless Communications 27

2.1 Multipath Propagation 27

2.2 Spectrum Limitations 32

2.3 Limited Energy 35

2.4 User Mobility 36

3 Noise- and Interference-Limited Systems 37

3.1 Introduction 37

3.2 Noise-Limited Systems 37

3.3 Interference-Limited Systems 43

Part II WIRELESS PROPAGATION CHANNELS 45

4 Propagation Mechanisms 47

4.1 Free Space Attenuation 47

4.2 Reflection and Transmission 49

4.3 Diffraction 54

4.4 Scattering by Rough Surfaces 63

4.5 Waveguiding 66

4.6 Appendices: please see companion website (www.wiley.com/go/molisch) 67

4.A: Derivation of the d−4 Law

4.B: Diffraction Coefficients for Diffraction by a Wedge or Cylinder

Further Reading 67

5 Statistical Description of the Wireless Channel 69

5.1 Introduction 69

5.2 The Time-Invariant Two-Path Model 71

5.3 The Time-Variant Two-Path Model 72

5.4 Small-Scale Fading without a Dominant Component 74

5.5 Small-Scale Fading with a Dominant Component 83

5.6 Doppler Spectra and Temporal Channel Variations 88

5.7 Temporal Dependence of Fading 91

5.8 Large-Scale Fading 95

5.9 Appendices: please see companion website (www.wiley.com/go/molisch) 99

5.A: The Lindeberg–Feller Theorem

5.B: Derivation of the Rayleigh Distribution

5.C: Derivation of the Level Crossing Rate

Further Reading 99

6 Wideband and Directional Channel Characterization 101

6.1 Introduction 101

6.2 The Causes of Delay Dispersion 102

6.3 System-Theoretic Description of Wireless Channels 106

6.4 The WSSUS Model 109

6.5 Condensed Parameters 112

6.6 Ultra Wideband Channels 118

6.7 Directional Description 120

6.8 Appendices: please see companion website (www.wiley.com/go/molisch) 123

6.A: Validity of WSSUS in Mobile Radio Channels

6.B: Instantaneous Channel Parameters

Further Reading 123

7 Channel Models 125

7.1 Introduction 125

7.2 Narrowband Models 126

7.3 Wideband Models 128

7.4 Directional Models 131

7.5 Deterministic Channel-Modeling Methods 138

7.6 Appendices: please see companion website (www.wiley.com/go/molisch) 142

7.A: The Okumura–Hata Model

7.B: The COST 231–Walfish–Ikegami Model

7.C: The COST 207 GSM Model

7.D: The ITU-R Models

7.E: The 3GPP Spatial Channel Model

7.F: The ITU-Advanced Channel Model

7.G: The 802.15.4a UWB Channel Model

Further Reading 142

8 Channel Sounding 145

8.1 Introduction 145

8.2 Time-Domain Measurements 150

8.3 Frequency Domain Analysis 152

8.4 Modified Measurement Methods 153

8.5 Directionally Resolved Measurements 157

8.6 Appendix: please see companion website (www.wiley.com/go/molisch) 164

8.A: The ESPRIT Algorithm

Further Reading 164

9 Antennas 165

9.1 Introduction 165

9.2 Antennas for Mobile Stations 169

9.3 Antennas for Base Stations 175

Further Reading 178

Part III TRANSCEIVERS AND SIGNAL PROCESSING 179

10 Structure of a Wireless Communication Link 181

10.1 Transceiver Block Structure 181

10.2 Simplified Models 186

Further Reading 186

11 Modulation Formats 187

11.1 Introduction 187

11.2 Basics 188

11.3 Important Modulation Formats 196

11.4 Appendix: please see companion website (www.wiley.com/go/molisch) 219

11.A: Interpretation of MSK as OQPSK

Further Reading 219

12 Demodulation 221

12.1 Demodulator Structure and Error Probability in Additive White Gaussian Noise Channels 221

12.2 Error Probability in Flat-Fading Channels 232

12.3 Error Probability in Delay- and Frequency-Dispersive Fading Channels 239

Further Reading 247

13 Diversity 249

13.1 Introduction 249

13.2 Microdiversity 251

13.3 Macrodiversity and Simulcast 258

13.4 Combination of Signals 259

13.5 Error Probability in Fading Channels with Diversity Reception 268

13.6 Transmit Diversity 273

13.7 Appendix: please see companion website (www.wiley.com/go/molisch) 274

13.A: Correlation Coefficient of Two Signals with Time Separation and Frequency Separation

Further Reading 275

14 Channel Coding and Information Theory 277

14.1 Fundamentals of Coding and Information Theory 277

14.2 Block Codes 283

14.3 Convolutional Codes 288

14.4 Trellis Coded Modulation 294

14.5 Bit Interleaved Coded Modulation (BICM) 299

14.6 Turbo Codes 300

14.7 Low Density Parity Check Codes 303

14.8 Coding for the Fading Channel 309

14.9 Information-Theoretic Performance Limits of Fading Channels 315

14.10 Appendices: please see companion website (www.wiley.com/go/molisch) 317

14.A: ARQ and HARQ

Further Reading 317

15 Speech Coding 319
Gernot Kubin

15.1 Introduction 319

15.2 The Sound of Speech 322

15.3 Stochastic Models for Speech 326

15.4 Quantization and Coding 331

15.5 From Speech Transmission to Acoustic Telepresence 339

Further Reading 342

16 Equalizers 343

16.1 Introduction 343

16.2 Linear Equalizers 347

16.3 Decision Feedback Equalizers 353

16.4 Maximum Likelihood Sequence Estimation – Viterbi Detector 355

16.5 Comparison of Equalizer Structures 358

16.6 Fractionally Spaced Equalizers 358

16.7 Blind Equalizers 359

16.8 Appendices: please see companion website (www.wiley.com/go/molisch) 361

16.A: Equivalence of Peak Distortion and Zero-Forcing Criterion

16.B: Derivation of the Mean-Square-Error Criterion

16.C: The Recursive-Least-Squares Algorithm

Further Reading 361

Part IV MULTIPLE ACCESS AND ADVANCED TRANSCEIVER SCHEMES 363

17 Multiple Access and the Cellular Principle 365

17.1 Introduction 365

17.2 Frequency Division Multiple Access 366

17.3 Time Division Multiple Access 371

17.4 Packet Radio 373

17.5 Duplexing 378

17.6 Principles of Cellular Networks 379

17.7 Appendix: please see companion website (www.wiley.com/go/molisch) 385

17.A: Adjacent Channel Interface

17.B: Information Theory of Multi-User Channels

Further Reading 385

18 Spread Spectrum Systems 387

18.1 Frequency Hopping Multiple Access (FHMA) 387

18.2 Code Division Multiple Access 389

18.3 Cellular Code-Division-Multiple-Access Systems 401

18.4 Multiuser Detection 406

18.5 Time Hopping Impulse Radio 411

Further Reading 415

19 Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) 417

19.1 Introduction 417

19.2 Principle of Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing 418

19.3 Implementation of Transceivers 418

19.4 Frequency-Selective Channels 420

19.5 Channel Estimation 425

19.6 Peak-to-Average Power Ratio 429

19.7 Inter Carrier Interference 432

19.8 Adaptive Modulation and Capacity 436

19.9 Multiple Access – OFDMA 439

19.10 Multicarrier Code Division Multiple Access 440

19.11 Single-Carrier Modulation with Frequency Domain Equalization 442

Further Reading 443

20 Multiantenna Systems 445

20.1 Smart Antennas 445

20.2 Multiple Input Multiple Output Systems 464

20.3 Multiuser MIMO 488

Further Reading 497

21 Cognitive Radio 499

21.1 Problem Description 499

21.2 Cognitive Transceiver Architecture 502

21.3 Principles of Interweaving 503

21.4 Spectrum Sensing 503

21.5 Spectrum Management 508

21.6 Spectrum Sharing 509

21.7 Overlay 512

21.8 Underlay Hierarchical Access – Ultra Wide Bandwidth System Communications 514

Further Reading 518

22 Relaying, Multi-Hop, and Cooperative Communications 519

22.1 Introduction and Motivation 519

22.2 Fundamentals of Relaying 521

22.3 Relaying with Multiple, Parallel Relays 527

22.4 Routing and Resource Allocation in Multi-Hop Networks 535

22.5 Routing and Resource Allocation in Collaborative Networks 549

22.6 Applications 554

22.7 Network Coding 556

Further Reading 560

23 Video Coding 563
Anthony Vetro

23.1 Introduction 563

23.2 Transform and Quantization 566

23.3 Prediction 569

23.4 Entropy Coding 571

23.5 Video Coding Standards 574

23.6 Layered Video Coding 575

23.7 Error Control 577

23.8 Video Streaming 581

Further Reading 583

Part V STANDARDIZED WIRELESS SYSTEMS 585

24 GSM – Global System for Mobile Communications 587

24.1 Historical Overview 587

24.2 System Overview 589

24.3 The Air Interface 591

24.4 Logical and Physical Channels 595

24.5 Synchronization 600

24.6 Coding 602

24.7 Equalizer 606

24.8 Circuit-Switched Data Transmission 607

24.9 Establishing a Connection and Handover 608

24.10 Services and Billing 614

24.11 Glossary for GSM 617

24.12 Appendices: please see companion website (www.wiley.com/go/molisch) 620

24.A: The Original Global System for Mobile Communications Speech Coder

24.B: General Packet Radio Service

Further Reading 620

25 IS-95 and CDMA 2000 621

25.1 Historical Overview 621

25.2 System Overview 621

25.3 Air Interface 622

25.4 Coding 623

25.5 Spreading and Modulation 625

25.6 Logical and Physical Channels 631

25.7 Handover 633

25.8 Appendices: please see companion website (www.wiley.com/go/molisch) 633

25.A: CDMA 2000 –History

25.B: CDMA 2000 –1x Mode

25.C: CDMA 2000 –3x Mode

25.D: CDMA 2000 –1xEV-DO

Further Reading 634

26 WCDMA/UMTS 635

26.1 Historical Overview 635

26.2 System Overview 636

26.3 Air Interface 639

26.4 Physical and Logical Channels 641

26.5 Speech Coding, Multiplexing, and Channel Coding 645

26.6 Spreading and Modulation 649

26.7 Physical-Layer Procedures 657

26.8 Glossary for WCDMA 661

Further Reading 663

27 3GPP Long-Term Evolution 665

27.1 Introduction 665

27.2 System Overview 667

27.3 Physical Layer 672

27.4 Logical and Physical Channels 684

27.5 Physical Layer Procedures 693

27.6 Glossary for LTE 697

Further Reading 698

28 WiMAX/IEEE 802.16 699

28.1 Introduction 699

28.2 System Overview 701

28.3 Modulation and Coding 703

28.4 Logical and Physical Channels 707

28.5 Multiple-Antenna Techniques 720

28.6 Link Control 724

28.7 Glossary for WiMAX 728

Further Reading 729

29 Wireless Local Area Networks 731

29.1 Introduction 731

29.2 802.11a/g – Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing-Based Local Area Networks 734

29.3 IEEE 802.11n 739

29.4 Packet Transmission in 802.11 Wireless Local Area Networks 745

29.5 Alternative Wireless Local Area Networks and Future Developments 749

29.6 Glossary for WLAN 749

Further Reading 750

30 Exercises 751
Peter Almers, Ove Edfors, Hao Feng, Fredrik Floren, Anders Johanson, Johan Karedal, Buon Kiong Lau, Christian Mehlf¨uhrer, Andreas F. Molisch, Jan Plasberg, Barbara Resch, Jonas Samuelson, Junyang Shen, Andre Stranne, Fredrik Tufvesson, Anthony Vetro and Shurjeel Wyne

30.1 Chapter 1: Applications and Requirements of Wireless Services 751

30.2 Chapter 2: Technical Challenges of Wireless Communications 751

30.3 Chapter 3: Noise- and Interference-Limited Systems 752

30.4 Chapter 4: Propagation Mechanisms 752

30.5 Chapter 5: Statistical Description of the Wireless Channel 754

30.6 Chapter 6: Wideband and Directional Channel Characterization 757

30.7 Chapter 7: Channel Models 758

30.8 Chapter 8: Channel Sounding 759

30.9 Chapter 9: Antennas 761

30.10 Chapter 10: Structure of a Wireless Communication Link 762

30.11 Chapter 11: Modulation Formats 762

30.12 Chapter 12: Demodulation 763

30.13 Chapter 13: Diversity 765

30.14 Chapter 14: Channel Coding 768

30.15 Chapter 15: Speech Coding 770

30.16 Chapter 16: Equalizers 773

30.17 Chapter 17: Multiple Access and the Cellular Principle 775

30.18 Chapter 18: Spread Spectrum Systems 777

30.19 Chapter 19: Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) 779

30.20 Chapter 20: Multiantenna Systems 780

30.21 Chapter 21: Cognitive Radio 782

30.22 Chapter 22: Relaying, Multi-Hop, and Cooperative Communications 784

30.23 Chapter 23: Video Coding 786

30.24 Chapter 24: GSM – Global System for Mobile Communications 787

30.25 Chapter 25: IS-95 and CDMA 2000 788

30.26 Chapter 26: WCDMA/UMTS 788

30.27 Chapter 27: 3GPP Long Term Evolution 788

30.28 Chapter 28: WiMAX/IEEE 802.16 790

30.29 Chapter 29: Wireless Local Area Networks 790

References 793

Index 817

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  • Five new chapters, on (i) cognitive radio, (ii) cooperative communications, (iii) video coding, (iv) LTE, and (v) Wimax.
  • Existing chapters updated and expanded
  • New sections on bit-interleaved coded modulation; multi-user MIMO; and IEEE 802.11n
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·         New edition contains five new chapters, on (i) cognitive radio, (ii) cooperative communications, (iii) video coding, (iv) LTE, and (v) Wimax.

·         A fully comprehensive, self-contained textbook on wireless communications – all the essential reading for advanced undergraduate and graduate students in one book

·         Combines mathematical descriptions with intuitive explanations of the physical facts, to assist students in acquiring a deeper understanding of the area.

·         Companion website features: instructors’ solutions manual, presentation slides, appendices to the majority of the chapters, supplementary material on the DECT (Digital Enhanced Cordless Telecommunications) system, glossary and other useful resources.

 

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Wireless Communications Visit the companion website for supplementary material on DECT, Presentation Slides, Useful Resources and an Instructors Solutions Manual. If you have any questions or comments concerning the book, the solutions manual, or the presentation slides, please feel free to contact the author at Andreas.Molisch@ieee.org.  
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Instructors Resources
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Students Resources
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