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LTE, LTE-Advanced and WiMAX: Towards IMT-Advanced Networks

ISBN: 978-0-470-74568-7
304 pages
November 2011
LTE, LTE-Advanced and WiMAX: Towards IMT-Advanced Networks (0470745681) cover image
A concise introduction to IMT-Advanced Systems, including LTE-Advanced and WiMAX

There exists a strong demand for fully extending emerging Internet services, including collaborative applications and social networking, to the mobile and wireless domain. Delivering such services can be possible only through realizing broadband in the wireless. Two candidate technologies are currently competing in fulfilling the requirements for wireless broadband networks, WiMAX and LTE. At the moment, LTE and its future evolution LTE-Advanced are already gaining ground in terms of vendor and operator support. Whilst both technologies share certain attributes (utilizing Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiple Access (OFDMA) in downlink, accommodating smart antennas and full support for IP-switching, for example), they differ in others (including uplink technology, scheduling, frame structure and mobility support). Beyond technological merits, factors such as deployment readiness, ecosystem maturity and migration feasibility come to light when comparing the aptitude of the two technologies.

LTE, LTE-Advanced and WiMAX: Towards IMT-Advanced Networks provides a concise, no-nonsense introduction to the two technologies, covering both interface and networking considerations. More critically, the book gives a multi-faceted comparison, carefully analyzing and distinguishing the characteristics of each technology and spanning both technical and economic merits. A “big picture” understanding of the market strategies and forecasts is also offered.

  • Discusses and critically evaluates LTE, LTE-Advanced and WiMAX (Legacy and Advanced)
  • Gives an overview of the principles and advances of each enabling technology
  • Offers a feature-by-feature comparison between the candidate technologies
  • Includes information which appeals to both industry practitioners and academics
  • Provides an up-to-date report on market and industry status
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About the Authors xv

Preface xvii

Acknowledgements xix

List of Abbreviations xxi

1 Introduction 1

1.1 Evolution of Wireless Networks 3

1.2 Why IMT-Advanced 5

1.3 The ITU-R Requirements for IMT-Advanced Networks 6

1.3.1 Cell Spectral Efficiency 10

1.3.2 Peak Spectral Efficiency 10

1.3.3 Bandwidth 10

1.3.4 Cell Edge User Spectral Efficiency 10

1.3.5 Latency 10

1.3.6 Rates per Mobility Class 11

1.3.7 Handover Interruption Time 11

1.3.8 VoIP Capacity 12

1.3.9 Spectrum 13

1.4 IMT-Advanced Networks 13

1.4.1 LTE-Advanced 13

1.4.2 IEEE 802.16m 14

1.5 Book Overview 15

References 16

2 Enabling Technologies for IMT-Advanced Networks 19

2.1 Multicarrier Modulation and Multiple Access 20

2.1.1 OFDM 20

2.1.2 OFDMA 22

2.1.3 SC-FDMA 22

2.2 Multiuser Diversity and Scheduling 23

2.3 Adaptive Coding and Modulation 23

2.4 Frequency Reuse 24

2.5 Wideband Transmissions 25

2.6 Multiple Antenna Techniques 27

2.7 Relaying 29

2.8 Femtocells 30

2.9 Coordinated Multi-Point (CoMP) Transmission 33

2.9.1 Interference Cancellation 34

2.9.2 Single Point Feedback/Single Point Reception 35

2.9.3 Multichannel Feedback/Single Point Reception 35

2.9.4 Multichannel Feedback/Multipoint Reception 35

2.9.5 Inter-Cell MIMO 35

2.10 Power Management 36

2.11 Inter-Technology Handovers 36

References 37

Part I WIMAX 39

3 WiMAX Networks 41

3.1 IEEE 802.16-2009 41

3.1.1 IEEE 802.16-2009 Air Interfaces 43

3.1.2 Protocol Reference Model 44

3.2 IEEE 802.16m 45

3.2.1 IEEE 802.16m Air Interface 48

3.2.2 System Reference Model 48

3.3 Summary of Functionalities 48

3.3.1 Frame Structure 48

3.3.2 Network Entry 50

3.3.3 QoS and Bandwidth Reservation 51

3.3.4 Mobility Management 53

3.3.5 Security 56

4 Frame Structure, Addressing and Identification 59

4.1 Frame Structure in IEEE 802.16-2009 59

4.1.1 TDD Frame Structure 60

4.1.2 FDD/HD-FDD Frame Structure 62

4.2 Frame Structure in IEEE 802.16j 62

4.2.1 Frame Structure in Transparent Relaying 63

4.2.2 Frame Structure in Non-Transparent Relaying 65

4.3 Frame Structure in IEEE 802.16m 69

4.3.1 Basic Frame Structure 69

4.3.2 Frame Structure Supporting IEEE 802.16-2009 Frames 70

4.4 Addressing and Connections Identification 71

4.4.1 Logical identifiers in IEEE 802.16-2009 71

4.4.2 Logical identifiers in IEEE 802.16j-2009 72

4.4.3 Logical identifiers in IEEE 802.16m 73

5 Network Entry, Initialization and Ranging 75

5.1 Network Entry in IEEE 802.16-2009 75

5.1.1 Initial Ranging 77

5.1.2 Periodic Ranging 78

5.1.3 Periodic Ranging in OFDM 79

5.1.4 Periodic Ranging in OFDMA 79

5.2 Network Entry in IEEE 802.16j-2009 80

5.2.1 Initial Ranging 82

5.2.2 Periodic Ranging 83

5.3 Network Entry in IEEE 802.16m 84

6 Quality of Service and Bandwidth Reservation 87

6.1 QoS in IEEE 802.16-2009 88

6.1.1 QoS Performance Measures 88

6.1.2 Classification 89

6.1.3 Signaling Bandwidth Requests and Grants 93

6.1.4 Bandwidth Allocation and Traffic Handling 97

6.2 Quality of Service in IEEE 802.16j 99

6.2.1 Classification 99

6.2.2 Signaling Bandwidth Requests and Grants 99

6.2.3 Bandwidth Allocation and Traffic Handling 103

6.3 QoS in IEEE 802.16m 104

6.3.1 QoS Parameters 104

6.3.2 Classification 104

6.3.3 Bandwidth Request and Grant 104

6.3.4 Bandwidth Allocation and Traffic Handling 105

7 Mobility Management 107

7.1 Mobility Management in IEEE 802.16-2009 107

7.1.1 Acquiring Network Topology 109

7.1.2 Association Procedures 109

7.1.3 The Handover Process 110

7.1.4 Optional Handover Modes 112

7.2 Mobility Management in IEEE 802.16j-2009 114

7.2.1 MR-BS and RS Behavior during MS Handover 114

7.2.2 Mobile RS Handover 115

7.3 Mobility Management in IEEE 802.16m 117

7.3.1 ABS to ABS Handovers 117

7.3.2 Mixed Handover Types 118

7.3.3 Inter-RAT Handovers 119

7.3.4 Handovers in Relay, Femtocells and Multicarrier IEEE 802.16m Networks 119

8 Security 121

8.1 Security in IEEE 802.16-2009 121

8.1.1 Security Associations 122

8.1.2 Authentication 122

8.1.3 Encryption 123

8.2 Security in IEEE 802.16j-2009 124

8.2.1 Security Zones 125

8.3 Security in IEEE 802.16m 125

Part II LTE AND LTE-ADVANCED NETWORKS 127

9 Overview of LTE and LTE-Advanced Networks 129

9.1 Overview of LTE Networks 129

9.1.1 The Radio Protocol Architecture 131

9.1.2 The Interfaces 132

9.1.3 Support for Home eNBs (Femtocells) 133

9.1.4 Air Interface 134

9.2 Overview of Part II 135

9.2.1 Frame Structure 135

9.2.2 UE States and State Transitions 136

9.2.3 Quality of Service and Bandwidth Reservation 137

9.2.4 Mobility Management 139

9.2.5 Security 142

References 145

10 Frame-Structure and Node Identification 147

10.1 Frame-Structure in LTE 147

10.1.1 Resource Block Structure 149

10.2 Frame-Structure in LTE-Advanced 151

10.3 LTE Identification, Naming and Addressing 151

10.3.1 Identification 152

10.3.2 Addressing 153

11 UE States and State Transitions 161

11.1 Overview of a UE’s State Transitions 161

11.2 IDLE Processes 162

11.2.1 PLMN Selection 162

11.2.2 Cell Selection and Reselection 163

11.2.3 Location Registration 164

11.2.4 Support for Manual CSG ID Selection 164

11.3 Acquiring System Information 164

11.4 Connection Establishment and Control 165

11.4.1 Random Access Procedure 165

11.4.2 Connection Establishment 167

11.4.3 Connection Reconfiguration 168

11.4.4 Connection Re-establishment 169

11.4.5 Connection Release 169

11.4.6 Leaving the RRC_CONNECTED State 170

11.5 Mapping between AS and NAS States 170

12 Quality of Service and Bandwidth Reservation 173

12.1 QoS Performance Measures 173

12.2 Classification 174

12.3 Signaling for Bandwidth Requests and Grants 175

12.3.1 Dedicated Bearer 176

12.3.2 Default Bearer 179

12.4 Bandwidth Allocation and Traffic Handling 180

12.4.1 Scheduling 180

12.4.2 Hybrid Automatic Repeat Request 182

12.5 QoS in LTE-Advanced 184

12.5.1 Carrier Aggregation 184

12.5.2 Coordinated Multipoint Transmission/Reception (CoMP) 184

12.5.3 Relaying in LTE-Advanced 185

13 Mobility Management 189

13.1 Overview 189

13.2 Drivers and Limitations for Mobility Control 190

13.3 Mobility Management and UE States 192

13.3.1 IDLE State Mobility Management 192

13.3.2 CONNECTED State Mobility Management 193

13.4 Considerations for Inter RAT Mobility 195

13.4.1 Cell Reselection 196

13.4.2 Handover 196

13.5 CSG and Hybrid HeNB Cells 196

13.6 Mobility Management Signaling 198

13.6.1 X2 Mobility Management 198

13.6.2 S1 Mobility Management 201

14 Security 203

14.1 Design Rationale 203

14.2 LTE Security Architecture 204

14.3 EPS Key Hierarchy 206

14.4 State Transitions and Mobility 208

14.5 Procedures between UE and EPC Elements 209

14.5.1 EPS Authentication and Key Agreement (AKA) 209

14.5.2 Distribution of Authentication Data from HSS to Serving Network 210

14.5.3 User Identification by a Permanent Identity 210

Part III COMPARISON 211

15 A Requirements Comparison 213

15.1 Evolution of the IMT-Advanced Standards 213

15.2 Comparing Spectral Efficiency 216

15.2.1 OFDMA Implementation 216

15.2.2 MIMO Implementation 217

15.2.3 Spectrum Flexibility 219

15.3 Comparing Relay Adoption 222

15.4 Comparing Network Architectures 223

15.4.1 ASN/AN (E-UTRAN) and the MME and the S-GW 223

15.4.2 CSN/PDN-GW 225

16 Coexistence and Inter-Technology Handovers 227

16.1 Intersystem Interference 227

16.1.1 Types of Intersystem Interference 228

16.2 Inter-Technology Access 230

16.2.1 Approaches to Inter-Technology Mobility 230

16.2.2 Examples of Inter-Technology Access 231

References 235

17 Supporting Quality of Service 237

17.1 Scheduling in WiMAX 237

17.1.1 Homogeneous Algorithms 239

17.1.2 Hybrid Algorithms 240

17.1.3 Opportunistic Algorithms 241

17.2 Scheduling in LTE and LTE-Advanced 243

17.2.1 Scheduling the Uplink 243

17.2.2 Scheduling the Downlink 245

17.3 Quantitative Comparison between LTE and WiMAX 246

17.3.1 VoIP Scheduling in LTE and WiMAX 246

17.3.2 Power Consumption in LTE and WiMAX Base Stations 247

17.3.3 Comparing OFDMA and SC-FDMA 247

References 247

18 The Market View 251

18.1 Towards 4G Networks 252

18.2 IMT-Advanced Market Outlook 253

18.2.1 Spectrum Allocation 254

18.2.2 Small Cells 255

18.2.3 The WiFi Spread 255

18.2.4 The Backhaul Bottleneck 256

18.2.5 Readiness for 4G 256

18.3 The Road Ahead 257

References 257

19 The Road Ahead 259

19.1 Network Capacity 260

19.2 Access Heterogeneity 261

19.3 Cognitive Radio and Dynamic Spectrum 261

19.4 Network Intelligence 262

19.5 Access Network Architecture 263

19.6 Radio Resource Management 263

19.7 Green Wireless Access 265

References 266

Index 269

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Najah Abu Ali

Najah Abu Ali works extensively on broadband wireless network architectures, design, QoS provisioning and performance, and has published and lectured in the area of analytical and measurement based network performance management, in addition to QoS and resource management in both single and multihop wireless networks. She is currently an Associate Professor in the Computer Networks Engineering Track at the College of Information Technology in the United Arab Emirates University (Al-Ain, UAE). Her previous posts include a postdoctoral fellow at the Telecommunications Research Lab at Queen's, and an instructor and head of the engineering department at Queen Noor College. She received her B.S. and M.S. degrees in Electrical Engineering in 1989 and 1995 respectively from University of Jordan, Amman, Jordan and her PhD degree in 2006 in Computer Networks in Electrical Engineering department at Queen's University, Kingston, Canada.

Abd-Elhamid M. Taha

Abd-Elhamid M. Taha is a research associate at the Telecommunications Research Lab of the School of Computing at Queen's University, Kingston, Ontario. He received the B.Sc. (honors) and the M.Sc. from Kuwait University in 1999 and 2002, and the Ph.D. from Queen's University in 2007. Dr. Taha has worked extensively in the area of broadband wireless networks, especially in the contexts of radio resource management, mixed-technology access networks and extended wireless infrastructure. He has also lectured on emerging broadband technologies (LTE, LTE-Advanced and WiMax) in key IEEE venues such as Globecom and VTC.

Hossam S. Hassanein

Hossam Hassanein is with the School of Computing at Queen's University working in the areas of broadband, wireless and variable topology networks architecture, protocols, control and performance evaluation. Dr. Hassanein obtained his PhD in Computing Science from the University of Alberta in 1990. He is the founder and director of the Telecommunication Research (TR) Lab (http://www.cs.queensu.ca/~trl) in the School of Computing at Queen's. Dr. Hassanein has more than 350 publications in reputable journals, conferences and workshops in the areas of computer networks and performance evaluation. He has delivered several invited talks and tutorials at key international venues, including Unconventional Computing 2007, IEEE ICC 2008, IEEE CCNC 2009, IEEE GCC 2009, IEEE GIIS 2009, ASM MSWIM 2009 and IEEE Globecom 2009. Serving on the editorial board of a number of International Journals, Dr. Hassanein is also a senior member of the IEEE and is currently chair of the IEEE Communication Society Technical Committee on Ad hoc and Sensor Networks (TC AHSN). Dr. Hassanein is an IEEE Communications Society Distinguished Lecturer.

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