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Hybrid Electric Vehicles: Principles and Applications with Practical Perspectives

ISBN: 978-0-470-74773-5
468 pages
July 2011
Hybrid Electric Vehicles: Principles and Applications with Practical Perspectives (0470747730) cover image
Modern Hybrid Electric Vehicles provides vital guidance to help a new generation of engineers master the principles of and further advance hybrid vehicle technology. The authors address purely electric, hybrid electric, plug-in hybrid electric, hybrid hydraulic, fuel cell, and off-road hybrid vehicle systems. They focus on the power and propulsion systems for these vehicles, including issues related to power and energy management. They concentrate on material that is not readily available in other hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) books such as design examples for hybrid vehicles, and cover new developments in the field including electronic CVT, plug-in hybrid, and new power converters and controls.
  • Covers hybrid vs. pure electric, HEV system architecture (including plug-in and hydraulic), off-road and other industrial utility vehicles, non-ground-vehicle applications like ships, locomotives, aircrafts, system reliability, EMC, storage technologies, vehicular power and energy management, diagnostics and prognostics, and electromechanical vibration issues.
  • Contains core fundamentals and principles of modern hybrid vehicles at component level and system level.
  • Provides graduate students and field engineers with a text suitable for classroom teaching or self-study.
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About the Authors xiii

Preface xvii

1 Introduction 1

1.1 Sustainable Transportation 3

1.1.1 Population, Energy, and Transportation 4

1.1.2 Environment 5

1.1.3 Economic Growth 6

1.1.4 New Fuel Economy Requirement 7

1.2 A Brief History of HEVs 8

1.3 Why EVs Emerged and Failed in the 1990s, and What We Can Learn from It 10

1.4 Architectures of HEVs 11

1.4.1 Series HEVs 12

1.4.2 Parallel HEVs 13

1.4.3 Series–Parallel HEVs 14

1.4.4 Complex HEVs 15

1.4.5 Diesel Hybrids 15

1.4.6 Other Approaches to Vehicle Hybridization 16

1.4.7 Hybridization Ratio 16

1.5 Interdisciplinary Nature of HEVs 17

1.6 State of the Art of HEVs 18

1.6.1 The Toyota Prius 19

1.6.2 The Honda Civic 21

1.6.3 The Ford Escape 21

1.6.4 The Two-Mode Hybrid 21

1.7 Challenges and Key Technology of HEVs 22

1.8 The Invisible Hand–Government Support 23

References 25

2 Concept of Hybridization of the Automobile 27

2.1 Vehicle Basics 27

2.1.1 Constituents of a Conventional Vehicle 27

2.1.2 Vehicle and Propulsion Load 27

2.1.3 Drive Cycles and Drive Terrain 30

2.2 Basics of the EV 31

2.2.1 Why EV? 31

2.2.2 Constituents of an EV 32

2.2.3 Vehicle and Propulsion Loads 34

2.3 Basics of the HEV 35

2.3.1 Why HEV? 35

2.3.2 Constituents of a HEV 35

2.4 Basics of Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle (PHEV) 36

2.4.1 Why PHEV? 36

2.4.2 Constituents of a PHEV 37

2.4.3 Comparison between the HEV and PHEV 38

2.5 Basics of Fuel Cell Vehicles (FCVs) 38

2.5.1 Why FCV? 38

2.5.2 Constituents of a FCV 39

2.5.3 Some Issues Related to Fuel Cells 39

Reference 39

3 HEV Fundamentals 41

3.1 Introduction 41

3.2 Vehicle Model 42

3.3 Vehicle Performance 44

3.4 EV Powertrain Component Sizing 47

3.5 Series Hybrid Vehicle 51

3.6 Parallel Hybrid Vehicle 56

3.6.1 Electrically Peaking Hybrid Concept 57

3.6.2 ICE Characteristics 63

3.6.3 Gradability Requirement 63

3.6.4 Selection of Gear Ratio from ICE to Wheel 64

3.7 Wheel Slip Dynamics 65

References 67

4 Advanced HEV Architectures and Dynamics of HEV Powertrain 69

4.1 Principle of Planetary Gears 69

4.2 Toyota Prius and Ford Escape Hybrid Powertrain 72

4.3 GM Two-Mode Hybrid Transmission 76

4.3.1 Operating Principle of the Two-Mode Powertrain 76

4.3.2 Mode 0: Vehicle Launch and Backup 77

4.3.3 Mode 1: Low Range 78

4.3.4 Mode 2: High Range 79

4.3.5 Mode 3: Regenerative Braking 80

4.3.6 Transition from Mode 0 to Mode 3 80

4.4 Dual-Clutch Hybrid Transmissions 83

4.4.1 Conventional DCT Technology 84

4.4.2 Gear Shift Schedule 84

4.4.3 DCT-Based Hybrid Powertrain 85

4.4.4 Operation of DCT-Based Hybrid Powertrain 87

4.5 Hybrid Transmission Proposed by Zhang et al. 89

4.5.1 Motor-Alone Mode 90

4.5.2 Combined Power Mode 91

4.5.3 Engine-Alone Mode 91

4.5.4 Electric CVT Mode 91

4.5.5 Energy Recovery Mode 92

4.5.6 Standstill Mode 92

4.6 Renault IVT Hybrid Transmission 92

4.7 Timken Two-Mode Hybrid Transmission 93

4.7.1 Mode 0: Launch and Reverse 94

4.7.2 Mode 1: Low-Speed Operation 94

4.7.3 Mode 2: High-Speed Operation 94

4.7.4 Mode 4: Series Operating Mode 94

4.7.5 Mode Transition 96

4.8 Tsai’s Hybrid Transmission 96

4.9 Hybrid Transmission with Both Speed and Torque Coupling Mechanism 98

4.10 Toyota Highlander and Lexus Hybrid, E-Four-Wheel Drive 99

4.11 CAMRY Hybrid 101

4.12 Chevy Volt Powertrain 102

4.13 Dynamics of Planetary-Based Transmissions 103

4.13.1 Non-ideal Gears in the Planetary System 103

4.13.2 Dynamics of the Transmission 104

4.14 Conclusions 105

References 106

5 Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles 107

5.1 Introduction to PHEVs 107

5.1.1 PHEVs and EREVs 107

5.1.2 Blended PHEVs 108

5.1.3 Why PHEV? 108

5.1.4 Electricity for PHEV Use 110

5.2 PHEV Architectures 110

5.3 Equivalent Electric Range of Blended PHEVs 112

5.4 Fuel Economy of PHEVs 112

5.4.1 Well-to-Wheel Efficiency 113

5.4.2 PHEV Fuel Economy 113

5.4.3 Utility Factor 114

5.5 Power Management of PHEVs 115

5.6 PHEV Design and Component Sizing 118

5.7 Component Sizing of EREVs 119

5.8 Component Sizing of Blended PHEVs 119

5.9 HEV to PHEV Conversions 120

5.9.1 Replacing the Existing Battery Pack 120

5.9.2 Adding an Extra Battery Pack 122

5.9.3 Converting Conventional Vehicles to PHEVs 123

5.10 Other Topics on PHEVs 123

5.10.1 End-of-Life Battery for Electric Power Grid Support 123

5.10.2 Cold Start Emissions Reduction in PHEVs 123

5.10.3 Cold Weather/Hot Weather Performance Enhancement in PHEVs 124

5.10.4 PHEV Maintenance 124

5.10.5 Safety of PHEVs 124

5.11 Vehicle-to-Grid Technology 125

5.11.1 PHEV Battery Charging 126

5.11.2 Impact of G2V 126

5.11.3 The Concept of V2G 129

5.11.4 Advantages of V2G 134

5.11.5 Case Studies of V2G 134

5.12 Conclusion 136

References 138

6 Special Hybrid Vehicles 139

6.1 Hydraulic Hybrid Vehicles 139

6.1.1 Regenerative Braking in HHVs 142

6.2 Off-road HEVs 144

6.3 Diesel HEVs 149

6.4 Electric or Hybrid Ships, Aircraft, Locomotives 150

6.4.1 Ships 150

6.4.2 Aircraft 154

6.4.3 Locomotives 156

6.5 Other Industrial Utility Application Vehicles 159

References 160

Further Reading 160

7 HEV Applications for Military Vehicles 163

7.1 Why HEVs Can Be Beneficial to Military Applications 163

7.2 Ground Vehicle Applications 164

7.2.1 Architecture – Series, Parallel, Complex 164

7.2.2 Vehicles Which Are of Most Benefit 166

7.3 Non-ground Vehicle Military Applications 168

7.3.1 Electromagnetic Launchers 169

7.3.2 Hybrid-Powered Ships 170

7.3.3 Aircraft Applications 171

7.3.4 Dismounted Soldier Applications 171

7.4 Ruggedness Issues 173

References 174

Further Reading 175

8 Diagnostics, Prognostics, Reliability, EMC, and Other Topics Related to HEVs 177

8.1 Diagnostics and Prognostics in HEVs and EVs 177

8.1.1 Onboard Diagnostics 178

8.1.2 Prognostics Issues 180

8.2 Reliability of HEVs 182

8.2.1 Analyzing the Reliability of HEV Architectures 183

8.2.2 Reliability and Graceful Degradation 185

8.2.3 Software Reliability Issues 187

8.3 EMC Issues 190

8.4 Noise Vibration Harshness (NVH), Electromechanical, and Other Issues 192

8.5 End-of-Life Issues 194

References 195

Further Reading 195

9 Power Electronics in HEVs 197

9.1 Introduction 197

9.2 Principle of Power Electronics 198

9.3 Rectifiers Used in HEVs 200

9.3.1 Ideal Rectifier 200

9.3.2 Practical Rectifier 201

9.3.3 Single-Phase Rectifier 202

9.3.4 Voltage Ripple 204

9.4 Buck Converter Used in HEVs 207

9.4.1 Operating Principle 207

9.4.2 Nonlinear Model 208

9.5 Non-isolated Bidirectional DC–DC Converter 209

9.5.1 Operating Principle 209

9.5.2 Maintaining Constant Torque Range and Power Capability 211

9.5.3 Reducing Current Ripple in the Battery 212

9.5.4 Regenerative Braking 213

9.6 Voltage Source Inverter 213

9.7 Current Source Inverter 213

9.8 Isolated Bidirectional DC–DC Converter 217

9.8.1 Basic Principle and Steady State Operations 218

9.8.2 Voltage Ripple 222

9.9 PWM Rectifier in HEVs 226

9.9.1 Rectifier Operation of Inverter 226

9.10 EV and PHEV Battery Chargers 229

9.10.1 Forward/Flyback Converters 230

9.10.2 Half-Bridge DC–DC Converter 231

9.10.3 Full-Bridge DC–DC Converter 231

9.10.4 Power Factor Correction Stage 232

9.10.5 Bidirectional Battery Chargers 234

9.10.6 Other Charger Topologies 234

9.10.7 Inductive Charging 235

9.10.8 Wireless Charging 236

9.11 Modeling and Simulation of HEV Power Electronics 237

9.11.1 Device-Level Simulation 238

9.11.2 System-Level Model 239

9.12 Emerging Power Electronics Devices 239

9.13 Circuit Packaging 240

9.14 Thermal Management of HEV Power Electronics 240

9.15 Conclusions 243

References 243

10 Electric Machines and Drives in HEVs 245

10.1 Introduction 245

10.2 Induction Motor Drives 246

10.2.1 Principle of Induction Motors 246

10.2.2 Equivalent Circuit of Induction Motor 248

10.2.3 Speed Control of Induction Machine 250

10.2.4 Variable Frequency, Variable Voltage Control of Induction Motors 252

10.2.5 Efficiency and Losses of Induction Machine 253

10.2.6 Additional Loss in Induction Motors due to PWM Supply 254

10.2.7 Field-Oriented Control of Induction Machine 265

10.3 Permanent Magnet Motor Drives 271

10.3.1 Basic Configuration of PM Motors 272

10.3.2 Basic Principle and Operation of PM Motors 273

10.3.3 Magnetic Circuit Analysis of IPM Motors 277

10.3.4 Sizing of Magnets in PM Motors 286

10.3.5 Eddy Current Losses in the Magnets of PM Machines 291

10.4 Switched Reluctance Motors 291

10.5 Doubly Salient Permanent Magnet Machines 293

10.6 Design and Sizing of Traction Motors 297

10.6.1 Selection of A and B 298

10.6.2 Speed Rating of the Traction Motor 298

10.6.3 Determination of the Inner Power 299

10.7 Thermal Analysis and Modeling of Traction Motors 299

10.8 Conclusions 306

References 306

11 Batteries, Ultracapacitors, Fuel Cells, and Controls 315

11.1 Introduction 315

11.2 Battery Characterization 317

11.3 Comparison of Different Energy Storage Technologies for HEVs 321

11.4 Modeling Based on Equivalent Electric Circuits 325

11.4.1 Battery Modeling 325

11.4.2 Battery Modeling Example 327

11.4.3 Modeling of Ultracapacitors 329

11.4.4 Battery Modeling Example for Hybrid Battery and Ultracapacitor 331

11.5 Battery Charging Control 334

11.6 Charge Management of Storage Devices 337

11.7 Flywheel Energy Storage System 341

11.8 Hydraulic Energy Storage System 344

11.9 Fuel Cells and Hybrid Fuel Cell Energy Storage System 345

11.9.1 Introduction to Fuel Cells 345

11.9.2 Fuel Cell Modeling 349

11.9.3 Hybrid Fuel Cell Energy Storage Systems 352

11.9.4 Control Strategy of Hybrid Fuel Cell Power System 355

11.10 Summary and Discussion 360

References 361

12 Modeling and Simulation of Electric and Hybrid Vehicles 363

12.1 Introduction 363

12.2 Fundamentals of Vehicle System Modeling 364

12.3 HEV Modeling Using ADVISOR 366

12.4 HEV Modeling Using PSAT 369

12.5 Physics-Based Modeling 370

12.6 Bond Graph and Other Modeling Techniques 378

12.7 Consideration of Numerical Integration Methods 381

12.8 Conclusion 382

References 382

13 HEV Component Sizing and Design Optimization 385

13.1 Introduction 385

13.2 Global Optimization Algorithms for HEV Design 386

13.2.1 DIRECT 386

13.2.2 Simulated Annealing 391

13.2.3 Genetic Algorithms 393

13.2.4 Particle Swarm Optimization 395

13.2.5 Advantages/Disadvantages of Different Optimization Algorithms 398

13.3 Model-in-the-Loop Design Optimization Process 399

13.4 Parallel HEV Design Optimization Example 400

13.5 Series HEV Design Optimization Example 405

13.5.1 Control Framework of a series HEV Powertrain 405

13.5.2 Series HEV Parameter Optimization 407

13.5.3 Optimization Results 408

13.6 Conclusion 410

References 412

14 Vehicular Power Control Strategy and Energy Management 413

14.1 A Generic Framework, Definition, and Needs 413

14.2 Methodology to Implement 415

14.2.1 Methodologies for Optimization 420

14.2.2 Cost Function Optimization 423

14.3 Benefits of Energy Management 428

References 429

Further Reading 429

15 Commercialization and Standardization of HEV Technology and Future Transportation 431

15.1 What Is Commercialization and Why Is It Important for HEVs? 431

15.2 Advantages, Disadvantages, and Enablers of Commercialization 431

15.3 Standardization and Commercialization 432

15.4 Commercialization Issues and Effects on Various Types of Vehicles 433

15.5 Commercialization and Future of HEVs and Transportation 434

Further Reading 434

Index 435

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